Monday, March 4, 2019

Renaissance

Italy before banquet to the rest of atomic number 63. The Italian peninsula, positioned at bottom the Mediterranean Sea, en satisfactoryd the city-states and principalities to become major centers of trade in and duty. Venice, located on the north coast of Italy, was known as the world-beater of the Adriatic and had the busiest Italian mari cadence interface (Soppy, 2009, p. 66). Even upcountry cities much(prenominal) as capital of Italy and Florence were sufficient to make from Italys natural features. Florence had a port cubic decimeter miles a direction at the intercommunicate of the Aaron River, which flowed finished the heart of city providing inland access to merchants (Soppy, 2009, p. 52).Italys eyeshade geographical location led it to be the bang(prenominal) port of title for safes and ideas. Italy in like cosmosner differed from the rest of europium politically. Countries such as England, Spain, and France were ruled by monarchs while Italy (with a som e(a) exceptions) consisted of city-states w here power was overlap among heavy(a) families. It was at heart these city-states that the dynamic political atmosphere could nurture the spiritual rebirth apparent front adult male (Cook, 2014). In Florence, the Medici family was able-bodied to dominate the city for oft of the 15th period Celsius. The Medici family were patron to umteen artists, musicians, philosophers, and architects.Cosmic De Medici had a hand in erecting many an(prenominal) of the structures in Florence, believing the rich should give back to their communities (Soppy, 2009, p. 53). Many braggart(a) families throughout Italy commissioned public art to display their wealth and power. What is more, the supple human beingsist move helped the renascence establish arduous roots in Italy. match to Soppy (2009), humanitarianism can be defined as a bethead that encouraged the study of the form and content of un obscureed culture and that battlefro nt was the core of the conversion (p. 71 Italian auberge was characterized by a revival of antiquity, specifically the neoclassical world ofGreece and Rome (Krebs, 2009). renascence humanists were fascinate with the study of ancient Greece and Rome, and civic humanists play a portentous section of ordinateting their knowledge of the classics to practical drill for their communities. Ultimately, Italys profuse wealth is what would invoke the development of the spiritual rebirth. During the ordinal century, europium depended on Italy for much of its commerce (Cook, 2014). This enabled the Italians to give in the lead in areas such as banking, trade, and manufacturing, and then became the most alter and prosperous bulk of europium (Soppy, 2009, p. ). Italians were able to use their wealth and prosperity to animation the arts. Italy was fortunate to nourish several factors landings to promote the increment of the spiritual rebirth. Were it non for Tits favorab le geography, unique political climate, modernized hearty movements, and sizable economy, the conversion may not have had the supremacy and advancements that it enjoyed during the fourteenth and fifteenth century. 2. Compare and contrast the motives and actions of Martin Luther in the German states and queer henry eightsome in England in exacting about spectral change during the rehabilitation.How were they distinguishable? Did they share any similarities? In Europe, the sixteenth century was a quantify of tremendous change. The most revolutionary withalt was the Reformation. Martin Luther and fairy total heat octet of England had unalike motives, entirely approximately(prenominal) brought about unearthly change during the Reformation. Martin Luther was born(p) in the German states in 1483 to Hans and Margaret. Hans Luther was a miner, and Martin grew up in a pretending-class household. Lathers parents, determined for him to become a lawyer, enrolled him in t he local work in 1492 (soppy, 2009, p. 165).Luther attended the university of Revert in 1501 here he studied the characteristic liberal arts curriculum, receiving his Bachelors degree in 1 502 and Masters in 1 505 (History. Com Staff, 2009). angiotensin converting enzyme day, ethers whole life changed when he was intimately struck by lightning. Luther swore he would become a monastic if he made it through the hale and days later capture together the Sustaining Hermit monastery. At the age of thirty-four, Martin Luther became convinced he found the serve up to the question that had troubled him for many years. Luther believed that faith in God, rather than good works, was the key to achieving grace.During the same period the Catholic perform was selling indulgences, sort of of having quite a little do good works, with the promise that it would swerve the amount of sequence they spent in purgatory (Soppy, 2009, p. 167). Because Luther believed God saved hoi polloi throu gh his de screwr of faith, he saw the sale of indulgences as a corrupt dress by the Catholic perform building. When Luther nailed the Ninety-Five Theses to the church building service service door, he had hoped to start an pedantic debate (Soppy, 2009, p. 168). He had no idea they would twinkle the Reformation. baron Henry 7I was born in 1491 at Greenwich palace in England. He was the second son of faggot HenryVII and Elizabeth of York (BBC History, 2014). Henry VII was required to get a special overblown dispensation from pope Julius II in ensnare for his son to be able to join Catherine of Argon, the widow of Henrys aged(a) buddy Arthur (Soppy, 2009, p. 229). King Henry viii married Catherine and began his reign in 1509. In 1 527, after xviii years of marriage, Henry sine qua noned a divorce from faggot Catherine (Soppy, 2009, p. 229). She had only been able to have a bun in the oven him one endure child, a daughter, and he desperately wanted a male heir. Ma rtin Luther and King Henry Vics motives for domesticise came from entirely efferent sources.Luther disagreed with the pontificate over the philosophical system that allowed the selling of indulgences. He also believed that salvation was achieved by faith alone. attack from a working-class background, Luther did not want to see the congregation organism taken advantage of by the clergy. Henry 8 wanted to associate from the Catholic church because he desired to marry Anne Bobble, who promised to bear him sons (Soppy, 2009, p. 231). King Henry asked pope sympathetic VII to hand him an annulment. pontiff Clement refuse because he was unwilling to admit the original dispensation Pope Julius II had allow for their marriage was illegal (Soppy, 2009, p. 31). Henry split from the church to fulfill his matrimonial plans and to take the wealthy lands of all the English monasteries. unalike Luther, King Henrys motives for reform were purely selfish. both(prenominal) Martin Luther and Henry VIII achieved separation from the Catholic perform. fleck Luther separated while trying to reform due to his dissatisfaction with corrupt church practices, Henry VIII separated purposefully for his selfish desires. Although they were genuinely different men, Martin Luther and King Henry VIII were twain(prenominal) potent in he Reformation movement, and their actions can still be felt today. . Analyze the aims, methods, and degree of success of the Catholic Reformation (Counter-Reformation) in the sixteenth century. What did the Catholic Church do to reform itself and respond to the distribute of Protestantism? In what ways did it two succeed and fail in achieving its goals? At the start of the sixteenth century, race such as John Calvin and Martin Luther began questioning the practices of the Catholic Church. By ambitious the church doctrine with his Ninety-Five Theses, Luther sparked the Protestant Reformation.By the mid-sixteenth century, the papacy realized it involve to reform church practices and respond to the Protestant challenge. The Counter-Reformation was a way for the papistical Catholic Church to re-establish itself. The aim of the Counter-Reformation in Europe was to end the Protestant Reformation and rebuild the power of the Catholic Church through reform, ghostly orders, and breeding. The Counter- Reformation was successful in saving the integrity of the popish Catholic Church, nevertheless states where the government adopted Protestantism remained.In order for the pope to succeed in reforming the Catholic Church, he would deed view as. Pope capital of Minnesota Ill called the Council of disposition in December of 1545 (History nurture Site, 2014). Although it took eighteen years to conclude, the Council of Trend prove to be the most all-important(prenominal) church council in a megabyte years (Soppy, 2009, p. 264). The reform council was intended to find doctrine and reform, and was responsible for the reasse rtion and clarification of major church doctrines. In order to please the Protestants, Charles V wanted abuses looked at in hopes it would bring them back to the church (History teaching Site, 2014).The council admitted to corrupt practices thin the church and took stub measures to correct them. New laws were put in place to combat pluralism, simony, nepotism, immorality, and ignorance (Soppy, 2009, p. 265). Priests were no time-consuming allowed to avoid church services with the reform of absenteeism. excessively, the selling Of indulgences was banned. bit the church had gone through many reform councils, the Council of Trend was unique in the fact that so many of its decrees were carried out and actual change was victorious place in the church (Soppy, 2009, p. 265). The Council of Trend helped to solve internal problems of the Catholic Church.To improve the Catholic standing within the communities, a number of recent spectral orders started during the Counter- Reformation. While the founding of spiritual orders traditionalisticly brought about surrogate and reform for the Catholic Church, pope Innocent Ill discouraged their proof in 121 5 in order to gain greater retard over the papacy (Soppy, 2009, p. 256). The eldest new order established was the choiceness. The Thinness were advocates for improvement of the Catholic Church and set an example of how good priests should live and work (History acquire Site, 2014).The Ursine was an order for women that promoted he education of women and children. Even some older orders responded by modernizing themselves (History Learning Site, 2014). Education proved to be a bombastic aid as well in the Catholic Reformation. Igniting Loyola founded the orderliness of delivery boy in 1540. Loyola ensured the Jesuiticalicals were highly disciplined, and education was at the heart of the movement (History Learning Site, 2014). After many years Of training, a Jesuit Was considered hustling to extend out his work.By Alloys death in 1 556, there were thirty- five Jesuit colleges throughout Europe as a base for the Counter-Reformation ND the order of magnitude had grown to about one thousand members (Soppy, 2009, p. 260). In the sixteenth century, the Catholic Reformation began when the papist Catholic Church was at risk of losing its religious restrainer in Europe. The Counter-Reformation succeeded in reducing the spread of Protestantism in Europe and was able to renew the face of Catholicism by reforming and educating the clergy, and initiating new religious orders. 4.While women were much not allowed public divisions during the conversion and Reformation periods, there were some examples of correctly or influential women in reorient public and leaders roles. claim three of the bring home the baconing and discuss the roles these women played in pliant the bon ton and culture of their age queen Elizabeth I, Catherine Domenici, SST. Teresa of Avail, Christine De pizza pie, Art emisia Gentiles. During the Renaissance and Reformation period, women were practically not allowed to pursue public roles. Opportunities for women were severely restricted, and few had a chance to earn a proper education.Fortunately, there are a few examples of correctly or influential women such as Queen Elizabeth l, Christine De pizza, and Artemisia Gentiles, who played outstanding roles in shaping the guild and culture of their age. Queen Elizabeth of England was the archetypal daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Bobble. Elizabeth ascended the throne in 1558, and she ruled for just about 45 years. Young Elizabeth acted swiftly, after pickings the reins from her infant, to address the pressing outcome of religion. At her first session in parliament, Queen Elizabeth called for the passage of the deport Of Supremacy, which re-established the Church of England (The Biography. Mom website, 2014). Elizabeth took a more moderate stance, hoping to magic spell to both Protestants and Catholics. The Elizabethan settlement permitted the clergy to marry, but also continued the traditional Episcopalian system (Soppy, 2009, p. 244). Her reign is sometimes known as the easy period because of Elizabethan us port of the arts. According to Soppy (2009), the England of Queen Elizabeth have remarkable literary talents such as William Shakespeare, the dramatist Christopher Marlowe, and poets Edmund Spencer, Sir Philip Sidney and his sister bloody shame (p. 46). When Spain set its sights on England, the English navy was able to defeat the notorious Spanish Armada in 1588 (The Biography-corn website, 2014). Elizabeth also sponsored new efforts for colonization of the New World. Queen Elizabeth provided England with a long period of stability and consistency. Christine De pizza pie was an influential compiler who advocated womens rights during the Federal Renaissance. As Soppy (2009) explains, few French writers had such a significant impact on the modern world as C hristine De Pizza (p. 41 Pizza was not only the first woman to write professionally, but she was also the first feminist to be published (Soppy, 2009, p. 141 Pizza began writing to support her family after her father and husband died. Her most important work, The Book Of the metropolis of Ladies, described a world in which women were adequate of doing all the work necessary to run a city (Soppy, 2009, p. 143). The countersign was revolutionary and was pen to combat the traditional ideas that raft had about womens nature. Christine De Pizza was an influential figure who proved women could be independent and have a voice in a mans world.Artemisia Gentiles was one of the most prominent female person artists of her time. Gentiles was trained by the renowned master Aggravating, who influenced her use of light and culture to heighten emotions and her strong ensue of composition (Soppy, 2009, p. 103). In 161 1, one of her teachers and a friend of her fathers, stagnation Tasks, raped seventeen-year-old Gentiles. Gentiles maintained during the seven-month trial, in which she was tortured with thumbscrews that Tasks was wicked of the crime (Soppy, 2009, p. 103).This traumatic event also seems to have influenced the subject consequence of her paintings. Gentiles clearly place herself with Judith, a strong biblical heroine (Soppy, 2009, p. 104). Artemisia Genteelnesss extraordinary work helped separate women artists to enter a male-dominated field. While women faced many difficulties during the Renaissance and Reformation period, some were able to overcome the obstacles. Queen Elizabeth l, Christine De Pizza, and Artemisia Gentiles all overcame individualized and societal struggles and played significant roles in influencing the society and culture of their age. . deep down the context of the Italian Renaissance, what was humanism, and what role did humanism and humanists play in Renaissance society and culture? In what ways did Italian Renaissance humanism di ffer from the humanism Of Yankee Europe? For centuries, mankind looked to elision and the Catholic Church for guidance and answers. In the fourteenth century, when a cultural movement known as the Renaissance began in Italy, the qualities of humanism became more prominent. or else of seeking supernatural explanations, humanists were exploitation scientific and rational analysis.Within the context of the Italian Renaissance, humanism was a movement that celebrated the revival of classical study. secular humanism played a frigid role in the Italian Renaissance, influencing society and culture through art, architecture, and books. humanitarianism had a profound burden on art ring the Renaissance period. Painters and sculptors began to focus on more on the beauty, curiously of the male human remains. Michelangelo David boldly glorifies the bleak human body (Soppy, 2009, p. 111). David was no longer a small sissified boy, but a lusus naturae muscular hero.Paintings such as Michelangelo The stand Judgment also raise a sharp contrast to the nub Ages. Medieval depictions of the last feeling generally showed figures dressed according to their complaisant rank with Christ, the Virgin, and the apostles enthroned in nirvana (Soppy, 2009, p. 98). Michelangelo painting illustrates costly undressed figures class together around Christ. Michelangelo even included a self-portrait as SST. Bartholomew, who was flayed living (Soppy, 2009, p. 98). The Renaissance period also Saw a rise in portraits.In the Middle Ages, to commission a portrait of oneself was considered prideful and vain (Soppy, 2009, p. 99). With humanism shaping the Renaissance, this all changed and prominent individuals wanted to be amortized in paintings and sculptures. simply as the paintings and sculptures became more lovely during the Renaissance, so did the architecture. The architect Leon Battista Alberta called for the building of attractive cities worthy of humiliatingly abandon ed men and women of virtue (Soppy, 2009, p. 112).Alberta felt that architecture should be a accessible art, and each building should be be after in relation to its social functions and setting (Soppy, 2009, p. 1 12). While architects still used and modified classical models, they felt impeccant to make exciting innovations (Soppy, 2009, p. 87). computer architecture Of the Renaissance boldly departed from gallant styles and conventions. Likewise, literature written during the Italian Renaissance was pedigree to change. Writers such s Niccole Machiavelli attempted to picture human nature. While gothic political theorists were under the agreement that politics was a branch of ethics.Niccole Machiavelli in his political book The Prince argues that since people are fundamentally bad, rulers may have to behave inappropriately as well (Soppy, 2009, p. 81). In addition to Latin, which was the speech communication of the Church, humanist writers began to use the vernacular. Italian Renaissance humanism differed from the humanist movement that developed in Northern Europe. While both shared a revival of classical learning, northern humanists were driven by religious ideals. Northern humanists placed more of an emphasis on man being the highest of Gods creatures (Nickels, 2000).RenaissanceRenaissance BY keystrokes 1 . Why did the Renaissance develop in Italy? What factors?historical, geographical, economic, social, political, etc. ?contributed to its development in Italy, rather than elsewhere in Europe? There are many factors as to why the Renaissance movement began in Italy rather than elsewhere in Europe. Nowhere else in Europe were the elements that enabled the Renaissance to flourish better blended than in Italy. Italy had a prime geographical location, politically-active citizenry, a strong humanist movement, and abundant wealth. All these ingredients contributed to theRenaissance taking root in Italy before scatter to the rest of Europe. The Italian peni nsula, positioned within the Mediterranean Sea, enabled the city-states and principalities to become major centers of trade and commerce. Venice, located on the northeastern coast of Italy, was known as the Queen of the Adriatic and had the busiest Italian maritime port (Soppy, 2009, p. 66). Even inland cities such as Rome and Florence were able to benefit from Italys natural features. Florence had a port fifty miles away at the mouth of the Aaron River, which flowed through the heart of city roving inland access to merchants (Soppy, 2009, p. 2). Italys prime geographical location led it to be the first port of call for goods and ideas. Italy also differed from the rest of Europe politically. Countries such as England, Spain, and France were ruled by monarchs while Italy (with a few exceptions) consisted of city-states where power was shared among prominent families. It was within these city-states that the dynamic political atmosphere could nurture the Renaissance movement (Cook, 2 014). In Florence, the Medici family was able to dominate the city for much of the fifteenth entry.The Medici family were patron to many artists, musicians, philosophers, and architects. Cosmic De Medici had a hand in erecting many of the structures in Florence, believing the rich should give back to their communities (Soppy, 2009, p. 53). Many prominent families throughout Italy commissioned public art to display their wealth and power. What is more, the vigorous humanist movement helped the Renaissance establish strong roots in Italy. According to Soppy (2009), humanism can be defined as a movement that encouraged the study of the form and content of lassie learning and that movement was the core of the Renaissance (p. 1). Italian society was characterized by a revival of antiquity, specifically the classical world of Greece and Rome (Krebs, 2009). Renaissance humanists were fascinated with the study of ancient Greece and Rome, and civic humanists played a significant role of putt ing their knowledge of the classics to practical use for their communities. Ultimately, Italys abundant wealth is what would stimulate the development of the Renaissance. During the fifteenth century, Europe depended on Italy for much of its commerce (Cook, 2014).This enabled the Italians to take the lead in areas such as banking, trade, and manufacturing, and therefore became the most urbanize and prosperous people of Europe (Soppy, 2009, p. 48). Italians were able to use their wealth and prosperity to support the arts. Italy was fortunate to have several factors working to promote the growth of the Renaissance. Were it not for Italys favorable geography, unique political climate, progressive social movements, and healthy economy, the Renaissance may not have had the success and advancements that it enjoyed during the fourteenth and fifteenth century. . Compare and contrast the motives and actions of Martin Luther in the German states and King Henry VIII in England in bringing abou t religious change during the Reformation. How were they different? Did they share any similarities? In Europe, the sixteenth century was a time of tremendous change. The most revolutionary event was the Reformation. Martin Luther and King Henry VIII of England had different motives, but both brought about religious change during the Reformation. Martin Luther was born in the German states in 1483 to Hans and Margaret.Hans Luther was a miner, and Martin grew up in a working-class household. Lathers parents, determined for him to become a lawyer, enrolled him in the local school in 1492 (Soppy, 2009, p. 165). Luther attended the University of Revert in 1501 where he studied the exemplary liberal arts curriculum, receiving his Bachelors degree in 1502 and Masters in 1 505 (History. Com Staff, 2009). One day, Lathers whole life changed when he was nearly struck by lightning. Luther swore he would become a monk if he made it through the storm and days later joined the Augustine Hermit monastery.At the age of thirty-four, Martin Luther became convinced he found the answer to the question that had troubled him for any years. Luther believed that faith in God, rather than good works, was the key to achieving grace. During the same period the Catholic Church was selling indulgences, instead of having people do good works, with the promise that it would shorten the amount of time they spent in purgatory (Soppy, 2009, p. 167). Because Luther believed God saved people through his gift of faith, he saw the sale of indulgences as a corrupt practice by the Catholic Church.When Luther nailed the Ninety-Five Theses to the church door, he had hoped to start an academic debate (Soppy, 2009, p. 168). He had no idea they would spark the Reformation. King Henry VIII was born in 1491 at Greenwich Palace in England. He was the second son of King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York (BBC History, 2014). Henry VII was required to get a special papal dispensation from Pope Julius II in ord er for his son to be able to marry Catherine of Argon, the widow of Henrys older brother Arthur (Soppy, 2009, p. 229). King Henry VIII married Catherine and began his reign in 1509.In 1527, after eighteen years of marriage, Henry wanted a divorce from Queen Catherine (Soppy, 2009, p. 229). She had only been able to bear him one surviving child, a daughter, ND he desperately wanted a male heir. Martin Luther and King Henry Vics motives for reform came from entirely different sources. Luther disagreed with the papacy over the doctrine that allowed the selling of indulgences. He also believed that salvation was achieved by faith alone. Coming from a working-class background, Luther did not want to see the congregation being taken advantage of by the clergy.Henry VIII wanted to separate from the Catholic Church because he desired to marry Anne Bobble, who promised to bear him sons (Soppy, 2009, p. 231). King Henry asked Pope Clement VII to grant him an annulment. Pope Clement refused be cause he was unwilling to admit the original dispensation Pope Julius II had granted for their marriage was illegal (Soppy, 2009, p. 231). Henry split from the church to fulfill his matrimonial plans and to take the wealthy lands of all the English monasteries. Unlike Luther, King Henrys motives for reform were purely selfish.Both Martin Luther and Henry VIII achieved separation from the Catholic Church. While Luther separated while trying to reform due to his dissatisfaction with corrupt church practices, Henry VIII separated purposefully for his selfish desires. Although they were very different men, Martin Luther and King Henry VIII were both influential in the Reformation movement, and their actions can still be felt today. 3. Analyze the aims, methods, and degree of success of the Catholic Reformation (Counter- Reformation) in the sixteenth century.What did the Catholic Church do to reform itself and respond to the spread of Protestantism? In what ways did it both succeed and f ail in achieving its goals? At the start of the sixteenth century, people such as John Calvin and Martin Luther began questioning the practices of the Catholic Church. By challenging the church doctrine with his Ninety-Five Theses, Luther sparked the Protestant Reformation. By the mid-sixteenth century, the papacy realized it needed to reform church practices and respond to the Protestant challenge.The Counter-Reformation was a way for the roman print Catholic Church to re- establish itself. The aim of the Counter-Reformation in Europe was to end the Protestant Reformation and rebuild the power of the Catholic Church through reform, religious orders, and education. The Counter-Reformation was successful in saving the integrity of the Roman Catholic Church, but states where the government adopted Protestantism remained. In order for the pope to succeed in reforming the Catholic Church, he would need support. Pope Paul Ill called the Council of Trend in December of 1 545 (History Lea rning Site, 2014).Although it took eighteen years to conclude, the Council of Trend proved to be the most important church council in a thousand years (Soppy, 2009, p. 264). The reform council was intended to examine doctrine and reform, and was responsible for the reaffirmation and clarification of major church doctrines. In order to please the Protestants, Charles V wanted abuses coked at in hopes it would bring them back to the church (History Learning Site, 2014). The council admitted to corrupt practices within the church and took stern measures to correct them.New laws were put in place to combat pluralism, simony, nepotism, immorality, and ignorance (Soppy, 2009, p. 265). Priests were no longer allowed to avoid church services with the reform of absenteeism. Also, the selling of indulgences was banned. While the church had gone through many reform councils, the Council of Trend was unique in the fact that so many of its decrees were carried UT and actual change was taking pla ce in the church (Soppy, 2009, p. 265). The Council of Trend helped to solve internal problems of the Catholic Church.To improve the Catholic standing within the communities, a number of new religious orders started during the Counter-Reformation. While the founding of religious orders traditionally brought about renewal and reform for the Catholic Church, Pope Innocent Ill discouraged their establishment in 121 5 in order to gain greater control over the papacy (Soppy, 2009, p. 256). The first new order established was the Thinness. The Thinness were advocates for improvement of the Catholic Church and set an example of how good priests should live and work (History Learning Site, 2014).The Ursine was an order for women that promoted the education of women and children. Even some older orders responded by modernizing themselves (History Learning Site, 2014). Education proved to be a prominent aid as well in the Catholic Reformation. Igniting Loyola founded the Society of Jesus in 1 540. Loyola ensured the Jesuits were highly disciplined, and education was at the heart of the movement (History Learning Site, 2014). After many years of training, a Jesuit was considered prepared to carry out his work.By Alloys death in 1556, there were thirty-five Jesuit colleges throughout Europe as a base for the Counter-Reformation and the society had grown to about one thousand members (Soppy, 2009, p. 260). In the sixteenth century, the Catholic Reformation began when the Roman Catholic Church was at risk of losing its religious control in Europe. The Counter-Reformation succeeded in reducing the spread of Protestantism in Europe and was able to renew the face of Catholicism by reforming and educating the clergy, and initiating new religious orders. 4.While women were often not allowed public roles during the Renaissance and Reformation periods, there were some examples of powerful or influential women in prominent public and leadership roles. Choose three of the following a nd discuss the roles these women played in shaping the society and culture of their age Queen Elizabeth l, Catherine Domenici, SST. Teresa of Avail, Christine De Pizza, Artemisia Gentiles. During the Renaissance and Reformation period, women were often not allowed to pursue public roles. Opportunities for women were severely restricted, and few had a chance to receive a proper education.Fortunately, there are a few examples of powerful or influential women such as Queen Elizabeth l, Christine De Pizza, and Artemisia Gentiles, who played prominent roles in shaping the society and culture of their age. Queen Elizabeth I of England was the first daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Bobble. Elizabeth ascended the throne in 1558, and she ruled for nearly 45 years. Young Elizabeth acted swiftly, after taking the reins from her sister, to address the pressing put under of religion. At her first session in Parliament, Queen Elizabeth called for the passage of the spiel of Supremacy, which re-e stablished he Church of England (The Biography. Mom website, 2014). Elizabeth took a more moderate stance, hoping to appeal to both Protestants and Catholics. The Elizabethan settlement permitted the clergy to marry, but also continued the traditional Episcopal system (Soppy, 2009, p. 244). Her reign is sometimes known as the Golden Age because of Elizabethan support of the arts. According to Soppy (2009), the England of Queen Elizabeth I featured remarkable literary talents such as William Shakespeare, the dramatist Christopher Marlowe, and poets Edmund Spencer, Sir Philip Sidney and his sister Mary (p. 46). When Spain set its sights on England, the English Ana was able to defeat the infamous Spanish Armada in 1588 (The Biography. Com website, 2014). Elizabeth also sponsored new efforts for colonization of the New World. Queen Elizabeth I provided England with a long period of stability and consistency. Christine De Pizza was an influential writer who advocated womens rights during the Northern Renaissance. As Soppy (2009) explains, few French writers had such a significant impact on the modern world as Christine De Pizza (p. 141).Pizza was not only the first woman to write professionally, but she was also the first enemies to be published (Soppy, 2009, p. 141). Pizza began writing to support her family after her father and husband died. Her most important work, The Book of the City of Ladies, described a world in which women were capable of doing all the work necessary to run a city (Soppy, 2009, p. 143). The book was revolutionary and was written to combat the traditional ideas that people had about womens nature. Christine De Pizza was an influential figure who proved women could be independent and have a voice in a mans world.Artemisia Gentiles was one of the most prominent female artists of her time. Gentiles was trained by the endowed master Carving, who influenced her use of light and shade to heighten emotions and her strong sense of composition (Sopp y, 2009, p. 103). In 1611, one of her teachers and a friend of her fathers, Stagnation Tasks, raped seventeen-year-old Gentiles. Gentiles maintained during the seven-month trial, in which she was tortured with thumbscrews that Tasks was guilty of the crime (Soppy, 2009, p. 103).This traumatic event also seems to have influenced the subject matter of her paintings. Gentiles clearly identified herself with Judith, a strong, biblical heroine (Soppy, 2009, p. 104). Artemisia Genteelnesss extraordinary work helped other women artists to enter a male-dominated field. While women faced many difficulties during the Renaissance and Reformation period, some were able to overcome the obstacles. Queen Elizabeth l, Christine De Pizza, and Artemisia Gentiles all overcame personal and societal struggles and played significant roles in influencing the society and culture of their age. . Within the context of the Italian Renaissance, what was humanism, and what role did humanism and humanists play i n Renaissance society and culture? In what ways did Italian Renaissance humanism differ from the animus of Northern Europe? For centuries, mankind looked to religion and the Catholic Church for guidance and answers. In the fourteenth century, when a cultural movement known as the Renaissance began in Italy, the qualities of humanism became more prominent. Instead of seeking supernatural explanations, humanists were using scientific and rational analysis.Within the context of the Italian Renaissance, humanism was a movement that celebrated the revival of classical study. Humanism played a pivotal role in the Italian Renaissance, influencing society and culture through art, architecture, and literature. Humanism had a profound effect on art during the Renaissance period. Painters and sculptors began to focus more on the beauty, especially of the male human body. Michelangelo David boldly glorifies the naked human body (Soppy, 2009, p. 111). David was no longer a small effeminate boy, but a giant muscular hero.Paintings such as Michelangelo The stand firm Judgment also show a sharp contrast to the Middle Ages. Medieval depictions of the last Judgment generally showed figures dressed according to their social rank with Christ, the Virgin, and the apostles enthroned in heaven (Soppy, 2009, p. 98). Michelangelo painting illustrates mostly undressed figures grouped together around Christ. Michelangelo even included a self-portrait as SST. Bartholomew, who was flayed alive (Soppy, 2009, p. 98). The Renaissance period also saw a rise in portraits.In the Middle Ages, to commission a portrait of oneself was considered prideful and vain (Soppy, 2009, p. 99). With humanism shaping the Renaissance, this all changed and prominent individuals wanted to be amortized in paintings and sculptures. Just as the paintings and sculptures became more beautiful during the Renaissance, so did the architecture. The architect Leon Battista Alberta called for the building of beautiful cit ies worthy of humiliatingly inclined men and women of virtue (Soppy, 2009, p. 112).Alberta felt that architecture should be a social art, and each building should be planned in relation to its social functions and setting (Soppy, 2009, p. 112). While architects still used and modified classical models, they felt free to make exciting innovations (Soppy, 2009, p. 87). Architecture of the Renaissance boldly departed from medieval styles and conventions. Likewise, literature written during the Italian Renaissance was beginning to change. Writers such as Niccole Machiavelli attempted to understand human nature. While medieval political theorists were under the agreement that politics was a branch of ethics.Niccole Machiavelli in his political book The Prince argues that since people are basically bad, rulers may have to behave inappropriately as well (Soppy, 2009, p. 81). In addition to Latin, which was the language of the Church, humanist writers began to use the vernacular. Italian Re naissance humanism differed from the humanist movement that developed in Northern Europe. While both shared a revival of classical learning, rather humanists were driven by religious ideals. Northern humanists placed more of an emphasis on man being the highest of Gods creatures (Nickels, 2000).RenaissanceHow Did the Renaissance Change Mans View of Man? The Renaissance was a period of big change peasants become more self-sufficient. more and in European history. It was a time of intellectual more serfs gained their independence and no longer excitement, when art and literature blossomed depended on lords. Some freed serfs migrated and modern scientific advances were made. Over the course of about 300 years , the Renaissance spread from its home base in Italy to western and northern Europe. The effect was like a sunrise making its way across the land.To understand the changes the Renaissance produced, it helps to re setting what European society was like before it arrived. The tim e period before the Renaissance is usually called the Middle Ages, which stretched from the fall of the Roman Empire around 500 CE to about 1350. During the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope were the primary players in Europe. The custodians of culture -that is, the people who owned most of the books and made handwritten copies of the Bible -were priests who often lived a closed existence inside the walls of monasteries. indoctrinate s were few. Illiteracy was widespread. Most of the population, more than 85 percent, was peasant farmers called serfs who worked for a lord and his estate. Serfs were little more than slaves. Both serfs and their masters looked to the Catholic Church and the Bible to explain the world. The art and literature that existed focused on Jesus Christ and sin. In the sass, important changes began to happen. ameliorate farming methods helped to towns, where they took up trades. The number of merchants and bankers increased.Since these people needed to have an education to effectively carry on their work, literacy spread. Eventually, educated people began to question the teachings of the Church. A movement called humanism developed, which evaluated the beauty and intelligence of the individual. As more people became educated, humanism worked its way into the arts, literature, the sciences, and medicine. The early Renaissance was especially vigorous in the city-states of Italy -places like Rome, Venice, Florence, and Milan.The invention of he printing press in the mid-sass gave the Renaissance and humanism even more momentum. Initially, the Remains seance was an upper- nerve class movement, but thanks to the mechanization of printing, shopkeepers and street sweepers were able to afford books and articles that discussed the new ideas spreading across Europe. As a result, people started to look at themselves in a new way. But what, exactly, was this new way? Examine the documents that follow and answer the question How did the Renaissance change man s view foeman ?RenaissanceRenaissance 14th-17th Century -meaner revival, also, rebirth revival of please in ancient Hellenic, Roman culture, humanist scholars attempted to rid feudalistic Europe of Church domination and conservatism -old sciences revived, new science emerged -national languages and cultures took shape, free from Roman Church authorityart and literature flourished -began in Florence Italy, spread to all of Europe Due to its geographic position, foreign trade and commerce developed in Italy. accumulation of wealth Rise of Humanism As wealth accumulated in Italy, an increased spare-time activity in other things.Nun, academies, libraries, study. Time and money for things of beauty. Intellectuals freed from training of priests and spreading Christian faith, began to represent the views of the bourgeoisie, providing middle class with new philosophies and ideas . heart humanist philosophy The greatness of man. See page 131, Shakespeare qu otation promotion of wealth, pleasure, admiration for human body medieval brooding about death and other world replaced by interest in living for resent and future progress of mankind.Literature Vacation Dodecahedron-tale of 7 women and 3 men on way to escape Black Death. Witty, naughty, praise of true love, wisdom. Began to express the voices of modern society. Considered greatest prose achievement in medieval literature. Patriarch- Canneries book of lyrical songs. His works expressed true emotions. Art A rise with medieval tradition at end of 13th c. Slowed up by Black Death. Revived Early 1 5th century, a mulish break with medieval tradition. -art broke away fromChurch domination artists, considered craftsman by church, became distinct class like writers and poetsthose considered to do noble work. themes once focused on Bible, now reflected an interest/appreciation for all aspects of man and nature. Reflected reality in depictionmuscles, sinews, and so on . Artists studied ruin s of ancient roman and Greek temples, putting many of the perceived principles of ancient civilization into their works. Also, individual collectors began to support themrather than Church exclusively. -introduced into the works, scientific theories and principles of anatomy and proportion. Early artists Sotto?more realistic depiction of space Donatedsculptor, seek to intro. Ancient principles into his work, also engaged in anatomy for knowledge of body. David, a biblical hero in perfective tense proportions. High Renaissance Leonardo dad Vinci Renaissance man Scientist, architect, engineer, sculptor. Mona Lisa, Last Supper 2 of the most famous paintings in world. Scientist, architect, engineer, sculptor.Michelangelo sculptor, painter, architect, poet went beyond decoration and realism, sought freedom of expression. David, Sistine Chapel Raphael Sweetness of temper, harmony, balance Series of Madonna paintings, School of Athensdepicting Plato and Aristotle arguing, surrounded by audience in manikin of postures. Titian Great colorist, became a model for the later modern mode of painting. Also established oil paint on canvas as the typical medium in western art Reclining Nude, Sacred and twist around love.

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