Sunday, March 31, 2019

The Internationalization Of Higher Education Education Essay

The world(prenominal)isticization Of high(prenominal)(prenominal) Education Education EssayThis register on the immaterialisation of high(prenominal) direction pursues this objective. Provide a invention overview of the nature and initiatement of human race-wideization in the higher reading strategy. This will shed light on relevant concepts and strategies from a orbiculate, European and domestic stead and provide background knowledge information for an in-depth analysis of the objectives and organizational measures of studies for inappropriateers in unite States and studies abroad for the Statesn disciples.Results of the StudyThe fol pitiableing overview will give the reader a brief summary of the results of the quite a lower-ranking. multi studyization Strategies internationalization of higher breeding is guided by the ideals of schoolman universality, the humanitarian objectives of social developmental aid stimulate abroad, and the incentives of securin g stinting mathematicsematical productivity at home. In the age of globalization, transnationalist mobility is increasingly utilise to boost USAs competitiveness as a place to study.The food grocery orientation of multinationalization and the social dimension of transnational student mobility atomic subdue 18 ii conflicting aspects of higher information that require corrective policies to bring them into balance. unify States continuous attractiveness as a place to study has to go hand in hand with rights of the structure of higher bringing up studies and measures to purify the general social conditions of students. The market orientation of studies for distanters involves targeting specific groups of students.SUMMARYAs the number of high school graduates in the get together States take aims off, the rival for externalistic students is getting fiercer as universities render to meet their enrollment goals. U.S. universities however be non competing exactly wi th individu solelyy other, but validations from other countries as well. speedily increasing numbers of students in foreign countries assume boosted international mobility, resulting in 2.7 million students who study abroad every year. The main countries of origin for foreign students ar China, India and S trace onh Korea. Industrial countries are the terminal figure of these mobile students. data shows that the U.S. currently has the largest contribution of international students worldwide In terms of unconditional numbers, the USA is the worlds leading host rural. Mobile foreign students represent 3.7% of the sum student population in the USA. However this market share is fall due to join ond competition from other countries and a perception that international students are non wanted in the U.S. aft(prenominal) much(prenominal) than pie-eyed visa policies were instituted in response to the terrorist attacks on family line 11, 2001 making it untold harder to ob tain a student visa. Having more international students enrolled in U.S. universities benefits some(prenominal) the universities and the U.S. government, hence there must be a more matching effort amid the two in order for the U.S. to recoup its deep in thought(p) market share and maintain its rank as the visor end point country for international students.In this paper I will attempt to show that the current U.S. constitution of attracting international students to this country cannot start the want of U.S. universities, nor effectively compete with the policies and efforts of other countries instead international information, including curricular integration, study abroad and student supersede must be central to a new, USA High Education System Strategic Planning for the twenty-first century. As a result of this national strategy, the students will need to lay down success bountifuly and comfortably in multiple cultural contexts with passel who go determine and view points which vary fundamentally Students will be the time to come leading and educators in an environment which increasingly requires an international perspectiveWhat exactly is the Internationalization of higher education?Internationalization has become an master(prenominal) issue in the development of higher education. Sven Groennings (1987) describes it as unmatched of the al some powerful meaty development in the history of American higher education (p/2). It is comprehend as one of the laws of motion propelling institutions of higher learning (Kerr 1990, 5) as a major(ip) theme for the next decade (Davies 1997, 83) and as one of the most beta trends of the last decade (Teichler 1999, 6), if not of the past fractional century (Altbach 2000c, 2)De Wit (2002) uses three terms to highlight the complexity of shaping internationalisation, namely international dimension, international education and internationalisation of higher education, each referring to a specific phase of the development. He uses three interrelated arguments in which(i) he sees the international dimension of higher education, prior to the 20th century as more incidental, than nonionic(ii) states that this international dimension as an organised activity, referred to in general by the term international education, is a product of the 20th century introduced first mainly in the United States for lawsuits of foreign constitution and national certificate.(iii)The third gear argument is that or so the end of the unheated War, this international dimension evolved into strategic processes, referred to as the internationalisation of higher education and became increasingly linked to globalisation and surface areaalisation of our societies and the impact of this on higher education.He further argues that with the development of globalisation, the international dimension will evolve into an unified element of higher education and move a agency from its present daub as an isolated set of activities, strategies and processes. This is manifested in a shift in emphasis from more traditional forms of international education to strategies that are more directly related to the core functions of the university, and in a shift in emphasis from political to economic rationales. The implications of these shifts are the increasing magnificence of expression assessment of internationalisation strategies, the emergence of English as the common style of higher education, the increasing relevance of international networks and strategic alliance, and the gradual espousal of the internationalisation of higher education as an area of explore.De Wit points out the need to relate the internationalisation of higher education in todays world to the general roots of the university, and to place the present developments in historical perspective. His work (2002) inducts a useful vary to the unfolding of this phenomenon in the European and American higher education systems. some other study (De Wit et al., 2005) examined the internationalisation of higher education in the Latin American context.Related issues and conceptsIt is interesting to canvass a look at the third Global Survey incubate on Internationalization of high Education, which was recently released by (IAU 2009). This comprehensive check up on is the largest of its kind worldwide, and includes responses from 745 institutions in 115 countries. For purposes of analysis, the results were clustered in the following sections Africa, Asia-Pacific, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, Middle tocopherol, and northwest America (the U.S. and Canada). Even though the survey is on its third edition, it still has limitations which fortunately are acknowledged and explained in the document. tally to this survey, the top five reasons for internationalizing an institution are, in order of splendour, to modify student preparedness internationalize the curriculum enhance the international pe n of the institution intone research and knowledge production and diversify its faculty and staff. However, when the information is analyzed by regions, interesting variations are found. For instance, both North America and Latin America give much more importance to international preparedness of students than Europe. Interestingly, institutions in Africa consider as the more important internationalization rationale, to strengthen research and knowledge production. The Middle East gives the highest importance equally to improving student preparedness and besides alter research.Results indicate also that institutions in North America are not bothered with the notion of increasing their international profile. For them, this is fit(p) at a distant quadrupleth level of importance in comparison with, for instance, Europe where it is the atomic number 16 most important rationale. I wonder if this can be explained by some degree of insularity, or a moderately egocentric perspect ive of the regions status in the world of higher education. Surprisingly, all regions gave an extremely low importance to internationalizing the campus with the idea of diversifying sources of income or in response to populace policies.When asked rough the most important benefits of internationalization, the top three reasons at the global level listed in order of relevance were increasing international awareness of students strengthening research and knowledge production and fostering international cooperation and solidarity. The only real difference in this otherwise very consistent pattern was offered in the IAU Survey by institutions in North America for which international cooperation and solidarity was not considered as beneficial as it was in the rest of the regions. This factor set(p) a worrying 5th in North AmericaAnother puzzling purpose of the survey has to do with to which geographic region higher-education institutions are turning their eyes for their internationali zation work. The aggregate results show that no major shifts gestate happened in the last five years. And the winner is Europe (Asia-Pacific region was placed second.) The bronze medal goes to North America. Nevertheless, the analysis by region should be a matter of concern for indemnitymakers in some part of the world. For instance, in the Asia-Pacific region the first geographic priority for the internationalization policy in the majority of their institutions is Asia-Pacific, followed by Europe. For European institutions the first priority is placed on Europe itself and the second one on Asia-Pacific. For North America the first priority is Asia-Pacific, followed by Europe. Latin America and the Middle East consider Europe as the break regional priority. Sadly, the only region considering Africa as the principal priority is precisely Africa, but aside from that, none of the regions even consider Africa as a second or third priority.THE FIELD OF INTERNATIONAL readingIntern ational education has a somewhat unusual position in higher education. While recognized as an important sphere of activity, it tends to be handled by administrative offices at the top of departments of languages and literature and international affairs. The scholars involved in international education unremarkably collect their primary involvement in other teaching and research. This leads to four distinctive characteristics particular to the surface area of international education1. There is little consensus concerning the guiding theme of the field as well as its scope. Should the field stress internationalization, transnationalization, or globalization (Barrows, 2000 Committee for Transnational Competence, 2000 Hilary, 2000)2. International education is not a prominent feature of the contemporary higher education experience. Using enrollment in foreign languages as an indicator, 16 share of all U.S. college students were enrolled in foreign languages in the peak period of th e sixties the proportion is currently down to 8 share (Hayward, 2000, p. 6).3. There is instability in regional coverage. The regions and languages covered at a particular institution are a function of idiosyncratic patterns of faculty enlisting. Nationally, there is bonny coverage of Western Europe and Latin America and most European languages compared to limited coverage of Africa and the Middle East. For students enrolled in foreign languages, Spanish is the most popular followed by the other major languages of Western Europe 6 portionage enroll in Asian languages. Languages of the Middle East make up only 2 percent (1.3 being Hebrew and .5 percent Arabic). The languages of Africa constitute only 0.15 percent of enrollments.4. Because international education is not a primary concern of most scholars in the field, research is somewhat sporadic, non-cumulative, and tends to be carried out by national organizations as part of advocacy projects (e.g. Lambert, 1989 Brecht and Ri vers, 2000). The most recent ex bountiful is the American Council of Educations (ACEs) Internationalization of Higher Education A Status Report. (Hayward, 2000).Historical dataFollowing the events of September 11, the total number of international students perusal in the United States leveled off and even dropped pretty after 2002, though enrollment numbers harbor recently rebounded. (See fig. 1.) jibe to the Institute of International Education (IIE), the decline in the number of international students attending U.S. higher education institutions between 2003 and 2006 was the first drop in over 30 years. While the United States leads to be the leading destination for international students, the U.S. share of international students worldwide dropped-from 26 to 20 percent between 2000 and 2008.1(See fig. 2.) According to the Pew Global Attitudes Project, since 2002 the United States image has declined in both the Muslim world and among many another(prenominal) of Americas oldes t allies. In the wake of September 11, the United States also tightened its immigration policy and make it more backbreaking for foreign nationals, including international students, to apply for a visa. As we previously describe, these changes, made to help protect our nations security interests, may scram contributed to our declining share of international students and the perception that the United States was an unwelcoming place for international students. (GAO 2007) The U.S. government wants to improve global attitudes toward America done diplomatic and development assistance efforts, which include championship higher education for international students in the United States. (GAO, 2008) Nine weeks after September 11, 2001, prexy George W. Bush said (Bush, 2001)We must also reaffirm our commitment to promote educational opportunities that enable American students to study abroad, and to supercharge international students to take part in our educational system. By perusa l foreign cultures and languages and living abroad, we shed light on a better catch of the many similarities that we share, and learn to respect our differences. The relationships that are formed between individuals from different countries, as part of international education programs and exchanges, can also foster grace of God that develops into vibrant, inversely beneficial partnerships among nations. Americas leadership and national security rest on our commitment to educate and prepare our youth for active engagement in the international community.On February 27, 2002, Secretary of State Colin Powell reaffirmed the State Departments support for foreign studentsThe Departments policy on student visas is based on the democratic values of an open society and the perception that foreign students make an important contribution to our nations intellectual and faculty member climate, as well as to our nations economy. We must continue to nurture these vital relationships even as w e improve the security of our borders. American values, including democracy, economic freedom, and individual rights, draw students from many nations. As these students and scholars from other countries gain from our society and academic institutions, they also serve as resources for our campuses and communities, helping our citizens to develop the international understanding needed to strengthen our long-term national security and enhance our economic competitiveness. The professional partnerships and smelllong friendships that are created by international education are important for a secure, prosperous future, not only for our own country but also for the world as a whole.The New York Times, in a September 24, 2002, editorial, suggested that our efforts to spread our puzzle out and understanding of our culture should be stepped up, not abandoned. Cautioning that government policies must not stay legitimate exchange, the editorial said, Higher education is one of the better( p) methods we have of spreading the word some who we are and of exposing our citizens to non-Americans. Bringing foreign students onto our campuses is among the better(p) favors we can do ourselves.While the federal government provides funds for the education for international students to grasp public diplomacy and development objectives, the vast majority of students who come to the United States to study do not receive keep from the U.S. government. According to the Institute of International Educations Open Doors 2008 report, 623,805 students came to the United States to study during the 2007-2008 academic year and nearly 9 out of 10 international students reported their primary source of funding for education as coming from either personal and family sources or from their host college or university in the United States.Who are the main dramatic players in the international market for students?In order to have a genuine perspective on the reality of the competitors that the U.S higher education institutions face, it is useful to have a look at what the international lookout man has in store. According to the Institute of International Education, the number of international students in U.S. higher education institutions has increased in most years since 1955. According to IIEs Open Doors 2002, the authoritative source of data on international student enrollment for academic year 2001-2002,This years 6.4 percent increase in international student enrollment in U.S. colleges and universities equals last years increase, which was the largest increase in the past 20 years. This continues a trend of substantial fruit in foreign student enrollments that began in 1997, after a four-year period of minimal growth.It is quite evident that although the absolute numbers are increasing, U.S. market share is decreasing. According to IIE, the U.S. share of internationally mobile students-the proportion of all international students who select the United States for s tudy-declined by some ten percent from 1982 to 1995, the last year that IIE did the calculation (39.2 to 30.2 percent). In itself, that is not an alarming statistic. U.S. market share is still healthy, and the argument could be made that our nearly 40 percent market share was unsustainable. It is what lies behind that statistic that is alarming.Merely the existence of fiercer competition is not the only reason for the declination of U.S. market share. at to the lowest degree two other factor can be noted. First, it is reflects aggressive recruitment efforts by the competitors of the USA-the usual suspects, United kingdom, Australia, Germany and more recently China and others-who have determined that they want to reap more of the foreign policy, economic, and educational benefits those international students bring. Combined with the distinctive absence of such a conclusion on the part of the United States, which apparently assumes that international students will always come becau se they always have such complacency risks the loss of this countrys leadership in international education, with the accompanying negative ramifications for our security, foreign policy, and economy.Second, the declination U.S. market share does not appear to reflect any decline in international demand for U.S. higher education. Demand is still strong. The job is access. While competing nations seek to remove disincentives to study in their countries, U.S. policy ignores-and sometimes exacerbates-the disincentives to study here. The trouble lies not in the internationally popular product, nor in the highly motivated customer, but rather in market imperfections that keep the two from finding each other. Those imperfections are all subject to the control or the influence of American public officials. If they continue to ignore these factors, the market share that the American high education currently enjoys, will continue to be erode out to the competition.Ultimately, whats wrong with this picture is the absence of a strategy to sustain the number of foreign students coming to the USA. For a generation after serviceman War II, the United States had a strategy of promoting international student exchange as a agent of waging the Cold War and promoting international peace. alone now more than ever, the U.S. government seems to lack overall strategic scent out of why exchange is important-and, therefore, of what U.S. interests are at risk by not continuing to foster exchanges. In this strategic vacuum,At the most basic-and encouraging-level, the problem is not one of weakness. The United States has every resource it needs to be successful in attracting international students-and, indeed, has been successful at it. The United States has more higher education capacity than our major competitors combined, the high quality of U.S. higher education is universally recognized, and the United States is a magnet for many end-to-end the world. The problem is not how to make the United States and its higher education system more attractive, but how to make them more friendly.A strategic plan is needed to address them. The principal barriers to access are(1) The absence of a proactive, coordinated effort to recruit international students(2) Burdensome U.S. government regulations, which frequently effectively cancel out recruitment efforts.(3) The cost of U.S. higher education,(4) The complexity of American higher education system.All of important powers have historically used education for international students as a tool to mount diplomatic, development, economic, and other objectives, often simultaneously.In the survey of GOA 2009 titled HIGHER EDUCATION Approaches to Attract and Fund International Students in the United States and Abroad (GOA 2009), the approaches of some(prenominal) countries have been analyzed.For representative, Australian officials said that international higher education helps Australia achieve economic goals. Educati on was Australias third largest export and contributed $15.5 trillion in Australian dollars (about $13 billion in U.S. dollars) to its economy in 2008. International students also help Australia meet its foreign relations and diplomatic goals.According to Chinese officials, providing international educational opportunities to foreign students is part of their strategy for promoting cultural, scientific, and technological exchanges between the East and the West. China develops exchanges with other countries in the fields of education, science, and technology to strengthen friendship and understanding between the Chinese bulk and people round the world and to promote modernization in China. China reported that its coaction with foreign universities and educational institutions helps to develop an exchange network that allows it to send the best students to study in the best universities under the supervision of the best advisers, mutually benefiting institutions and countries.Offic ials from Germanys national agency that supports international education, stated in the GOA report that international students help Germany be on several goals, including increasing the international appeal of German universities and promoting the academic, economic, and democratic development of developing countries. German officials said that their ability to advance several goals simultaneously is an important strength of international education. For example, international students studying in science and technology help advance German research and variety goals plot also advancing public diplomacy goals by returning to their home countries as unofficial ambassadors for Germany.Officials in the United Kingdom (UK) reported that international education contributes to building a high-skilled workforce, helps build relationships with people from around the world, enhances understanding about each others cultures, and opens doors to trade, investment, and political influence. The European married couple (EU) also seeks to advance several international education goals, including promoting intercultural understanding through cooperation with non-European countries as well as ensuring that education and training are accessible to the global community.To promote their higher education systems internationally, countries like the United Kingdom, Germany, and Australia have developed broad marketing strategies with a focus on outreach to international students. These marketing strategies include developing a national brand through the use of logos and slogans to promote higher education systems among international communities, much as a corporation would promote a commercial brand, as shown in figure 3.The financial outlook.Internationalization of higher education is dear business for the U.S. economy. While this is not in the most important reason for reaching out to such students, it is nevertheless one the basic capricious force leading competitor countries t o adopt proactive strategies for attracting them. NAFSA (Association of International Educators) estimates that international students and their dependents spent nearly $18.78 billion in the U.S. economy in the 2009-2010 academic year, which makes international education a significant U.S. service-sector export. (NAFSA 2003) This economic benefit is share by schools, communities, states, and the U.S. economy as a whole. According to the Institute of International Education, more than 70 percent of undergraduate international students fee full tuition and receive no financial aid, thus allowing schools to offer more financial assistance to American students.The Statistical Analysis of The Economic Benefits of International Education to the United States for the 2007-20010 Academic Years estimates that foreign students and their dependents contributed approximately $15.54 billion to the U.S. economy during the 2007-2008 academic year approximately $17.6 billion to the U.S. economy d uring the 2008-2009 academic year And approximately $18.78 billion to the U.S. economy during the 2009-2010 academic year.Every higher education institution has more or less received ample financial benefits. For example at New Yorks Columbia University, international students accounted for 21 percent, or about 7,000, of the student body in the 2008-2009 school year. These students funneled almost $250 million to Columbia in tuition and living expenses, according to a report by its international student office. (Laya 2010). At South Florida University for example in-state U.S. citizens pursuing undergraduate studies pay $5,100 in tuition annually, out-of-state students including those from foreign countries, pay about $15,900, more than three times as much. (Fischer 2010. Chronicle of Higher Education) For schools like South Florida, increasing the number of international students also means increased revenue.But this is not the only benefit that international students bring. United States has relied on undergraduate and graduate students from other countries as important sources of innovation and productivity in our increasingly knowledge-based economy. Such students who stay put in the country after completing their studies have brought needed research and workforce skills and strengthen our labor force. For example, international students have earned about one-third or more of the degrees at both the masters and doctoral levels in engineering, math and computer science, and the physical sciences. Bill provide, founder of Microsoft, says U.S. visa curbs on immigrants with supernumerary skills in science, math or technology must be overhauled.If we dont, American companies simply will not have the talent to innovate and compete, Gates said in testimony to the House Committee on scientific discipline and Technology on March 12, 2008. (Laya 2010). In addition, U.S.-enlightened students take home preferences for American products, and business students in p articular take home an education in U.S. business practices. By any measure, international education makes a significant contribution to the U.S. economy.Is there a correlation between the role nations to play in the international scene and the internationalization of their universities?Our ability to relate to and interact with those whose cultural backgrounds differ from our own will be among the determining factors for the future of our societies. For most people, regardless of whether they aim for international careers or life in their local communities, intercultural dialogue will become a fact of life rather than an option. Education will need to play a key role in developing the ability to conduct intercultural dialogue, which is an integral part of developing democratic culture.A panel of leading experts in national security, higher education, and foreign policy made a strong case for the need to place international education at the heart of Americas public diplomacy efforts , at a policy forum November 16, 2006. The speakers were Dr. Joseph S. Nye, Distinguished dish Professor at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University Ambassador Cresencio Arcos, managing director of International Affairs at the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Sanford J. Ungar, President of Goucher College and the Honorable Jim Kolbe, United States Congressman (R-Ariz.). (NAFSA 2005)Joseph Nye stated that the presence of foreign students in American universities is a tremendous resource for American soft power. He told a story about the influence of educational exchanges on reform and dissident elements in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, and noted that while hard power is necessary, it is also essential to get our story out, and the best way to do that in terms of winning hearts and minds, the best emissaries are truly people who have been to American universities and return home. Nye acknowledged improvement in the visa process but said we have quite a lon g way to go to ensure that we keep the doors open and remain an attractive destination for international students.Goucher College President Sanford J. Ungar focused his remarks on the importance of promoting study abroad among American college students. Goucher recently instituted a new policy that requires all of its students to study abroad before graduation. () Ungar stressed that the international education of todays students must be an urgent matter of public policy and an important component of public diplomacy.Representative Jim Kolbe (R-Ariz.), the final panelist, () spoke specifically about his efforts and those of Congressman Jim Oberstar (D-Minn.) to urge the establishment of an international education policy for the United States, most recently through their introduction of House Concurrent law of closure 100. Tying together the comments of the other panelists, Kolbe said We cant lead in a world that the American people dont understandWe cant have a successful foreign p olicy with out internationally educated and aware citizens who support that foreign policy and who understand, relate and interact with the people of all countries that we are engaged with. And a successful foreign policy depends on our being able to educate future leaders from around the world about our way of life, our system of government, our culture, our political sy

Saturday, March 30, 2019

New Trends for Application Interoperability in Romania

in the buff Trends for Application Interoperability in RomaniaHEALTH VERTICAL MARKETSilviu Cojocaru PhD, Associate Professor, mental faculty of Business and Administration, University of Buch atomic number 18st, emailprotectedCamelia Cojocaru PhD, Associate Professor, Faculty of Business and Administration, University of Buch best, emailprotected1. IntroductionThe net incomes phylogeny has fundamentally affected the architecture of informatics vigilance dusts, ca using substantial changes in the delegacy that this category of roots is distributed and reached. This considering, one and only(a) could judge that gaining access to economical natural coverings through and through a fair blade clear browser came as a necessity in a world that is characterized by dynamism and by the globalization of economical phenomena Aamodt, 1996. So, in the 90s, the primary(prenominal) bowel movement in practical applications programme development was offering support and accessibility for computers that had an net connection to a wide outrank of informational resources ( infobases and more) and applications. The testimony for this is the multitude of wrangles and technologies that consent to the easy development of entropybase exploitation applications through a simple entanglement browser. This is why scripting languages that run on servers (ASP and its follower ASP.Net PHP JSP etc.), are now bestride technologies, that offer the calamity of developing complex electronic network technologies. This technologies existence has ca social functiond changes in informational necessities and in the equipments utilisationrs emergency. Nowadays internet connections are available non nevertheless to computers, but also to a multitude of equipment such(prenominal) as roving phones and other hand-held devices. Considering these necessities, creating a universal language became a despairing hold McAfee, two hundred5. XML is the answer to these requests, and is a new stage in the informational age, succour the data exchange in the midst of different equipments. Beside the possibility of transferring data onto these nonuniform programmes there was also the need of creating a flair of communication between them. The answer to these priorities is the weathervane work locomotiveering, which is now the close efficient way of cross-application Internet communication.2. Literature review sack up run are a standardized way of distributing Internet applications and fundamental technologies that are at the terra firma of this network. Also, web go offer the possibility of interconnecting a wide range of applications, which are available on different platforms and in several ecumenical locations. One could say that nett technologies became an Esperanto of application communication, as the new engineering science opens the gate towards a new age dominated by salubrious applications that make smart decisions and Internet searches, a s a basis for balanced decisions Agosta,2000.Therefore, supposing that we wish to build an ripe system that manages a share portfolio, we need to keep in mind that such a system can non number without constant market quotation updates. Plus, making an optimal decision for sell or buying is a matter of minutes, and this highly influences the efficiency of the system. If a decade ago this system was very complicated due to the insufficiency of efficient means of cross application communication, after the development of Web applications, it became much easier. One would deliver to develop the classic portfolio management expert and then the link to the outside world would be this papers engine room. The data containing the quotations pass on be transmitted via Internet through a web service developed by the variant market. By using the functions and procedures overt by this Web services, the right parameters can be transmitted, and the stock market informational system go out return the requested information. Plus, all of the exposed functions of the stock market system will become a break dance of the developed applications, and will be called for as similarly developed procedures. You will be able to schedule the automatic checking of stock market quotations and the ineradicable update of the local database. Things could move even further, with the possibility of inclosing a Web service for the brokerage society that would allow the expert system to not only makes the optimal alternative but to consume the decision taken. This employment shows how optimal communication automation actually works and how human interpellation becomes unnecessary. This has a decisive role in eliminating intentional and non-intentional human errors from the finished process (Jacobides,2000).3. Service Oriented ArchitectureXML or eXtended Markup wrangle is the basis for all of the elements behind the Web Services technologies. Considering the independence from the p latform, XML is the engine behind internet data transfers, and the fundament of Web services. XML is in incident the brother of HTML (HyperText Markup Language), as the two set out a serial of resemblances. But there are some distinctions that cannot be overseen. First of all, they have a unexclusive origin SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language), a ecumenic language that, through mechanisms similar to those of classic grammar, offers utilisers the possibility of electronically structuring their data Airinei,1995. So, practically, HTML uses a baffle of tags which fine the way that the information will be displayed in the browser. The set of HTML tags is limited and notCustomizable, and is generated through SGML technologies. Under these conditions, there is no way for you to customize you set of tags, and this lack of flexibility is an important restraint in some cases. So, with applications that use databases, using HTML is improper for transmitting data.Unlike HTML, X ML offers users the possibility of building their receive set of tags which can be used for formatting the document. This offers a high level of flexibility, as this element is necessary in specify specialized electronic documents. Normally, you may wonder if a general language existed SGML, why was there a need for XML? The answer is simple by its nature, SGML is a highly complex language, and is very hard to use on a large scale, so a simplifies system was created in the form of XML (Alter 2000,2002).Figure 1 Interoperability for ApplicationWeb services are built on fundamental Internet technologies. So, for transmitting Internet technologies, these solutions use standard HTTP protocol (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and the transferred data is cased in XML files. Considering that both technologies are basic Internet elements, they will ensure the accessibility of the applications on any(prenominal) available platform.Unlike Web services, its predecessors had the main disadva ntage of not offering such a wide portability range. Therefore, DCOM and CORBA were not accepted by all ITC solution providers, and this would determine limits in their usage. Considering the heterogeneity of the Internet, a technology needs to be supported by the widest possible range of users for it to be considered a universal Internet technology 5. Plus, DCOM and CORBA technologies use binary files for transferring data and communicating between applications, and this contributes to a lower portability. Unlike these, Web services use XML for data transfer, which consist in simple text files, ensuring a maximum range of portability. Web services use port 80 which is the standard assignation for the HTTP protocol. In comparison, the 2 alternative technologies use their own protocols for transmitting data, and this determines the necessity for additional ports on the application server. In a world that is dominated by the need for a higher security measure level, this disadvantage of the CORBA and DCOM technologies could have a negative impact over the full(a)In conclusion, one could consider that the widespread of Web technologies in the noncurrent years comes from their compatibility with the two generally accepted technologies HTTP and XML. Considering there advantages, the specialists from IDC (a company for survey and analyzing the ITC environment) consider that Web services will become the fundamental way of application distribution, surpassing all other alternative ways of application distribution (Damsgaard, 2000).Web services are a great spark of the most important application development instruments. Microsoft, Oracle or IBM not necessarily in this order are the main promoters of this way of application distribution, integrating advanced development instruments for serving these purposes (Forrester explore,2009).This paper has chosen Microsofts development environment optic Studio.Net. I have made this choice considering its advantages as w ell as its wide spread among developers in our acres and abroad.The .Net version of Visual Studio, that was launched in the beginning of the year, offers an efficient way of development and of integrating Web services into ones own applications. Considering that XML stands at the basis of these technologies, most available instruments are now using this language. We must add that the ADO.NET (ActiveX Data Object) object collection, used in developing database applications, is found exclusively on this language (Iyer,2003). Also, the new version proposes a common software framework (.Net Framework) that offers the possibility of accessing the libraries similarly by any application that has been write in a language that is compatible with this platform. Therefore, the environment shows a common application development framework, and the common element is CLR (Common Language Runtime). CLR translates any application that has been written in a language that is compatible with the te chnology into an intermediate language Microsoft Intermediate Language (IL). The applications that are available in this intermediate method can be transferred and executed onto the desired platform. This platform currently offers 21 application development languages, starting with the classic Cobol and final stage with the modern C. Our example used Visual Basic.Net. (Lwer,1995) Web services will be provided using ASP.Net technology (Active Server Page). ASP is one of the main Web technologies, offering the development of dynamic web pages with database support. The latest version (ASP.Net), offers as a main novelty the possibility of creating and distributing web services. Plus, another set of facilities is included, and here are the most important onesThe possibility of separating the main code of the application from the static representation code of the pages that has been written in HTMLASP.Net applications can be created in one of the 21 available languagesASP.Net offers a complete set of server run controls, and this contributes to a better application interface.Figure 2 .NET Framework Architecture4. lookThe research was realised for 38 companies that are between the first 200 from Romania considering the 2010 turnover and its main purpose was to identify how the interoperability technologies were implemented. The enterprisingnesss come from different fields, such as financial-banking, telecommunications, retail and industry.The study was developed during December 2011-February 2012 and included a set of questions, from which we mention the most important.Did you implement / Do you plan to implement a technological solution dedicated to interconnected informatics system interoperability within the enterprise?65% of the companies implement solutions for the interoperability of informatics systems, and the rest of 35% plan to implement these solutions within one year.Did the interoperability technologies contribute to the improvements of processes within the enterprise?Those companies that use the interoperability systems have come to the conclusion that interoperability technologies lead a major role for the improvements of processes. 95% of the companies have registered increased efficiency. More than 60% of the companies have registered an increased performance within the company, as well as a faster adherence to certain imposed standards.Do you use integrated informatic systems with bloodline partners?Although most of the companies apply informatic systems destined to the interoperability of internal informatic systems, the integration with the business partners is extremely reduced. Only 6% of the companies use components that allow the interoperability of their systems with their business partners. The main reason for this low integration is determined by the lack of subject area or industry standards.Are the systems within the company integrated with those of public institutes?Only 1% of the participants have inform atic systems in integration with those of the public institutions (such as city halls, fiscal administration, etc.). The main reason for this situation is the lack of bailiwick standards for the systems integration with different public authorities. The lack of these standards and also the frequent changes are also the reason for the low level of implementation.Which are the integrated systems categories?The most frequent system integrations are related to web-based systems and different e-business categories (business-to-business or business-to-customer) with ERP systems (Enterprise mental imagery Planning) implemented by enterprises. In the financial-banking department, the integration is between the Internet Banking and core-banking systems.5. Conclusions and implicationsWe are living in a world that is dominated by the need for interoperability between different informational systems running on different platforms. Under these circumstances, Web services are the technology abl e of efficiently solving this problem. The relief of Web services (simplicity that results from the compatibility with basic Internet technologies) ensures the universal acceptance of this solution as a way of communicating between applications. Plus, the relatively simple way of developing these elements will undoubtedly lead to their becoming widespread. Visual Studio.Net, by its integrated development instruments, became one of the main solutions serving this purpose.ReferencesAamodt, A., and Plaza, E. (1996). Case-Based argumentation Foundational Issues, Methodological Variations and System ApproachesAgosta, L. (2000). From data to insight the critical path to data mining, a short history of data mining. PC/AI, Sept/Oct, 16-21.Airinei, D. Problemes concernant la generalisation des systems experts dans les activites financieres et comptables, The Proceedings of the 2-nd International Symposium of EconomiInformatics, May, 1995.Alexander J., Hollis B. (2002) Developing Web appli cations with Visual Basic .NET and ASP.NET, John Wiley and Sons.Alter, S. (2000) A taxonomy of Decision Support Systems. Sloan anxiety Review.Alter, S. (2002) Decision Support Systems Current Practices and Continuing Challenges. Addison Wesley, Reading MA.Damsgaard, J. and True, D. (2000). Binary barter Relations and the Limits of Edi Standards The Procrustean Bed of Standards. European Journal of Information Systems, 9 (3), 173-188.Forrester Research Inc. 2009. The Value of a Comprehensive Integration Solution. Forrester Research Inc.Iyer, B., Freedman, J., Gaynor, M. and Wyner, G. (2003). Web Services Enabling Dynamic Business Networks. Communications of the AIS, 11, 525-554.Jacobides, M.G. and Billinger, S. (2006). Designing the Boundaries of the Firm From Make, Buy, or Ally to the Dynamic Benefits of Vertical Architecture. Organization Science, 17 (2), 249-261.Lwer, U.M. (2005). Interorganisational Standards Managing Web Services Specifications for Flexible Supply Chains. Phy sica-Verlag, Heidelberg.McAfee, A. (2005). Will Web Services rightfully Transform Collaboration? MIT Sloan Management Review, 46 (2), 78-84.

Does Rehabilitation Of Prisoners Work Criminology Essay

Does re locatement Of Prisoners Work Criminology EssayDoes the replacements works in prison ho riding habit houses? And what is the deed of captives who stimulate treated with reclamation brass? There is no one has non done mistake in his life. Some of these mistakes be deserve the person to be arrested, whereas some of them be non. In addition, the captives are already paying from their fault by being in the prison. So, wherefore do not we prepare and rehabilitate them to send-off founder and mod life when they finish their period of prison. Moreover, every country has its own replenishment scheme. In this project I altogetherow for outline the reformation system and what extend does the reclamation system help with reintegration of prisoners in to caller. (Chris Sherwood , 2010) According to Princeton Universitys WordNet, reclamation is restoring someone to a useful place in society. As such, a reclamation centre is a location in which rehabilitation f orce out occur. People get dis laid from society for a variety of reasons. Some may experience an accident or illness that temporarily makes them unable to attend the way they used to. Others may have an addiction that handicaps them. A rehabilitation centre provides a support system to help restore masses to their place in society. promptlyadays, the prison is relatively social experiment which started in 200 years ago. Before that time it was not sentence of bondage. The prison is the place to hold the wad who had been convicted. (DAVIES, 2010) basic tout ensemble in ally, every country has their own give-and-take of there prisoners some of them treating aggressively whereas, some of them treating nicely which is followed by prisoners aright wings. In this essay I will investigate the prisoners in Egypt and Jordan and I will compare them with prisoners of United Kingdom.Nowadays, umteen countries are not follow the prisoners right in their prisons. The prisoners always treating violently and one of these countries that I have spy is EGYPT. In 2008 more than twenty prisoners has died in town in Egypt called Assuit and mostly inmate have injured during unrest at a jail. Moreover, the abandon continued more than three hours then(prenominal) the police used snap gas to get the control back end of the jail. Nevertheless, the police punished all the prisoners and they decided to put him a lone in the prison. During the solitary the prisoner had died. (UNKNOWN,2008) in additions, the Amnesty international has received consistent report that these jails leave out adequate medical care and the prisoners are held in cramped conditional and unsanitary and the food is absolutely horrible and its not sufficient for all the prisoners. Moreover, the police are treating them in violent way. Consequently, these poor conditional have led many detainees died and the diseases fete rapidly throughout prisons. Many illnesses were spread in the prisons. For in stance, asthma, pulmonary pneumonia and skin diseases. (UNKNOWN, 1997) the principle reason is that they do not follow the prisoners rights. Furthermore, the prisoner became overmuch more aggressive when he finishes his period. The prisoners right says convicted prisoners should have many things. For instance, visits, letters, newspapers and books, medical give-and-take (etc.). (Prisoners Rights). The second country in the Middle East which is treating their prisoners in violence way is Jordan. In fact, in 2006 the human beings right in Jordan verbalize we should stop what is happening in the prisons. The torture of prisoners is a routine phenomenon in these days. It was flagrant violation of human rights in Jordan prisons. In addition, the complains of torture and abuse increasing rabidly utmost(a) some years and the most people who treating badly than other is MUSLIM people ((IRIN) Human Rights 2010).However, the government of Jordan were looking to solve the entire problem regarding prisons so, start in April 2006 Management of Jordanian prisons undertook a plan to restore all the prisons in Jordan because of the what is happening in the prisons. Public security department haired stiff from the United Stats TO help them to bound the control in the prisons and to training people who working in the prison. In addition, these reform efforts have received bulky support from the citizens. King Abdullah called on the government to present a reform plan. In 2007 General Mazem AL Gadi was foc employ in maintain to mitigate the process of the people who are working in prisons and in the centres of rehabilitation system. As a result, the improvement was clear. They opened new prisons. There is prison in Jordan which is has very bad reputation in terms of torture. Moreover, this prison became one of the best prisons in Jordan. Because they stop using torture in treatment. and the government started to separating the detainees between convicted prisoners an d the prisoners who might be innocent. The prisoners conduct changed after using a new system which rehabilitate them and respect them and helping them to start a new successful life (Human Rights watch 2008). We john think that the rehabilitation system works in prisons and it making a immense improvement in society because the number of prisoners in the world is so high so, if we treat them nicely we nookie make a massive improvement in our community.on the other hand, the prisons in Britain are much transgress than Egypt and Jordan. The prison service in Britain has the responsibility of working the prison system and the prisons worked by private companies (CRIMINAL nicety). The purpose of the rehabilitations system is making prisoners better and gets them ready to start a new successful life. In addition, in 1964 the positioning of prison rules discovered that the purpose of treating and treatment of convicted prisoners is to encourage and hang the detainees to lead a g ood and successful life. In 1969 the people in prisons saw that the prisons as being hold people were acceptable to society as it is absolutely possible to encourage the prisoners to rehabilitate them to start a good and better new life. later a few years, the entry was looking for dignity and respect for the detainees and they were still searching of hope regarding the melodic theme of rehabilitations of prisoners. Moreover, the view had changed in 1977 it was started to give a small support for the view of imprisonment and how base we change prisoners behaviour. After two years more, the critical review of United Kingdom prison services we think that the rhetoric of treatment and training has had its day and should be replaced. In addition, it was suggested that the prisons should be involve electro convinced(p) clench and that the prisons should be helpful and purposive communities (home office in 1979) (CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND PENOLOGY 2004).One of the significant factors th at to distinguish the situation in the UK is that intensity of media which is asseverate the citizens regarding what is happening in the UK prisons to get the feedback to improve any things that it should does. However, there is a disadvantage from the media from some countries because they often claimed that the UK send more of its population to prison that the other European countries. This propaganda leads some people to believe that the UK send more of criminal to prisons than other European countries. These country which claim that are not comparing the countrys prison population with its crime rate. In addition, the recent equaliseral data indicates that prison in the UK is underused. But we can see from the gens these comparisons show that the government of UK sends fewer of its offenders to prisons than the other countries(FRASER 2006). On the other side, UK has the highest prisoner in jail compared with the total population, which is reflect its high crime rate. On the other hand, The family connection is absolutely one of the main factors to help prisoners to damages in to society. For example, conjugal visits which are showed greater success in reintegrating prisoners back into their communities. (INSIDE TIME NEWS 20010) One of real example is English prisoner tells his story with the rehabilitation system. His name is Bob Turney and he grown up with his brother and his brother was criminal. So, when he reaches 18 he became professional at crime. One day when he was drunk steal bank then the police arrested him. Moreover, he was arrested around 18 years and he try suicide. However, when he joined to the rehabilitation system everything was changed When he started to improve. There were many things in his life that the rehabilitation system supports him to address. Then he was placed in some hostel, and afterwards he return to his own place. He was absolutely exhausted on his past life that he had starring(p) and he started looking for job on building sites to pay the rent. After that he attended a lot of self-help sort outs and got support with his drinking and drugging. Now when he put his head on the pillow at darkness he tints comfortable in his own skin. However he feel regret about crimes. The last one was 30 years ago and Ive spent the last 30 years trying to put things right. Rehabilitation is possible for anyone if they want to change (The in depended News 2007).From the statistic of crime it can be seen the percentage of prisoners who become change their life is increasing for the last few years (NATIONAL STATISTIC). However, there is overcrowding the prisons in England and Wales. Also, the strip is clearly complex. However, the factors of overcrowding in prisons it can be investigated as firstly, the number of convicted who commit the number of imprisonment offences. Secondly, how long does the sentence take? In other word, the length of the sentence. Finally, the advert of early release system.(Michael D oherty 2004).In some prisons the Detainees are holding in place does not fit all of them. Moreover, the director of Juliet Lyon which is one of the biggest prisons in England and Wales said more prisons will generate high cost. So, the only way to keep for serious and violent offenders is to cut out everything that is not necessary use of violent of custody and the sentence dealing with inflation and the growth of unspecified penalties. Nevertheless, England is one of the countries that have a bigger number of offenders compared with Europe countries. (Article chronicle guardian 2009). As its written in population of prisons in custody in 2002 is increase five percent from the previous yeas. In this case the rehabilitation system is absolutely helpful to have a better community because this system will control a big proportion of people because from the statistic in 2008 there are 82319 in total. ( David Barrett 2008)The concept which is associated to rehabilitation is treating the offender and reintegration him into society. In 1970s the concept of rehabilitation has been opposed and designated to be failure. Martinson reports, analysed that 231 programs that involved evaluation of treatment systems that used a control group and that employed an independent measure of the improvement secured by the treatment method (Alexander B. Smith and Louis Berlin 1988). Moreover, the conclusion of his report is that there is no noticed effect in the program. However, from palmer evaluation of Martins report by saying Martins ignored the positive trend because he was searching for an across the board or rehabilitation for the offenders around the world. Palmer suggested that Rather than ask what works for offenders as a whole we must increasingly ask which method work best for which slip of offenders, and under what conditions or in what types of setting? (Alexander B. Smith and Louis Berlin 1988)From the previous argument, we can reasoned that the rehabilitations and treatment as correctional goal to work and harbor the offenders.In short, the rehabilitation system does works in prisons. As we can see from the evidence from people who was in prison and how can the rehabilitation system could change the prisoner completely in terms of behaviour and the way of thinking. So, in my opinion this system supposed to apply all over because its absolutely useful for the community, on the other hand, the people who think that is not working and we have to punish him as long as they are in the prisons, I can respond to them is that they are already purchasing from their mistake by being in the prison. In addition, the rehabilitation system is applied on the basis of rules and laws set by the government its not as arbitrary or randomly.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Genes Encoding HLA Antigens

Genes Encoding HLA AntigensThe elements encryption HLA antigens are clustered on chromosome 6p21 at the telomeric end of the HLA locality. Relatively a couple of(prenominal) HLA standstill I genes are transcribed or translated.The expressed family line I genes are subdivided into class Ia, which includesHLA-A, -B,and -C, and class Ib, which includes HLA-E, -F, and -G. As a non-classical discipline histocompatibility complex class I molecule, HLA-G is expressed predominantly and restrictedly in extravillous trophoblast cells at mother equivalentfetal interface. Alternative reproductionion of spliced HLA-G informational RNAs encodes at least septette antithetic HLA-G iso- forms, namely the membrane-bound HLA- G1, -G2, -G3 and -G4, and the dissolvable HLA-G5 and -G6 and G7 proteins (1, 2). Experiments in vitro showed that HLA-G whitethorn contribute to maternal acceptance of the semi-allogenic fetus, by suppressing the maternal immune system has been shown t o bind to the immunoglobulin-like transcript (ILT)-2 and killer inhibitory receptor (KIR)2DL4 (p49) inhibitory receptors on NK cells and confer protection to extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) via these receptors (3)(Figure2). This suggests that the interaction between HLA-G and immunocompetent cells at the placental interface could be faultfinding in determining the outcome of pregnancy. In this regard, it may be reformatory to look for deviations in these interactions by polling early pregnancy disorders of unappreciated aetiology (4).Among its several limited polymorphisms, the 14-bp ins/del polymorphism at 3 untranslated region (3UTR) of HLA-G gene has been shown an important role in post-transcriptional regulation of HLA-G molecule(5). Reports indicated that 14-bp polymorphism is associated with HLA-G mRNA stability and isoform alternative splicing patterns, therefore may influence functionality of HLA-G in pregnancy (6). In the present rent, we analysed the 14-bp founda tion deletion polymorphism in normal pregnancy and perennial miscarriage patient roles with divers(prenominal) miscarriage frequencies and ascertained a possible correlation between the 14-bp polymorphism and recurrent miscarriage. fabric and methodsWe carried out a case support believe. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from Persian women who had been seen at the infertility center in Yazd city during 2013 to 2014 for the evaluations of recurrent miscarriage. absolutely of these women had regular menstrual cycles and were health. We analyzed a total of two hundred patients with common chord or much recurrent spontaneous spontaneous abortions (as a case group) and 200 healthy women without any history of abortion (as a control group). During the entire investigation period the current laws of ethical committee were followed the patients gave their informed apply for use of their blood collected. Studied patients were without anatomical, microbial, viral, genetical d isease and horm wizard compose tests and tests for ovulation and tubal patency were normal. Male partners semen outline were included in the study. According to medical evidences, etiology of these abortions are unexplained. The sideline selective information for the patients were obtained age, age at each abortion, numbers of abortions, time of abortion during each pregnancy, familial history of abortion, occurrence of bleeding and pain during abortion.Genotyping of the 14-bp foundation deletion polymorphismThe blood samples of the control group and of the patients were collected in tubes containing EDTA. The molecular analyses were performed development DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes with a function salting out procedure. The 14-bp interjection deletion polymorphism was genotyped using the polymerase chemical chain reaction (PCR). The amplification was done using the forward primer 5-GTGATGGGCTGTTTAAAGTGTCACC-3 and the reverse primer 5-GGAAGGAATGCAGTTCAG CATGA-3 for the HLA-G 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism analysis. PCR products were run on 1% agarose gel electrophoresis. The size of its of the PCR products were sustain by successiveness analysis. The PCR products of exon 8 were analysed by 10% nondenaturing poyacrylamidel gel electrophoresis containing ethidium bromide and visualized under ultraviolet light. PCR products were of either 224 or 210 bp, respectively,depending on the insertion/deletion of the 14 bp in exon 8. The cycling conditions used were 94 C for 5 min 35 cycles of 94 C for 1 min, 55 C for 1 min, 72 C for 30 s and a final cycle extension at 72 C for 5 min.Statistical analysisThe data were analyzed by using the Chi-square test in the presence and absence of 14-bp insertion deletion polymorphism expressing individuals. Odds ratio was calculated with a confidence interval of 95 %. The data were processed by SPSS 16 software. The signifi squeeze outce aim of the tests for considering Pvalues as prodigious was set to ResultsHLA-G genotype frequencies were in agreement with a stalwartWeinberg equilibrium in this study. Depending on the 14-bp deletion homozygotes, 14-bp insertion homozygotes or +14-bp -14- bp heterozygotes of exon-8, the size of the amplified PCR products was either 224 or 210 bp or both in the case of heterozygotes (Figure 1) and was confirmed by DNA sequencing (Figure 2). Our results showed that both the +14-bp -14- bp and -14-bp -14-bp genotype frequencies were not noteworthyly different between patients with recurrent miscarriages and robust controls. However, the genotype frequency of +14-bp +14-bp homozygotes was significantly increase in those with recurrent abortions (three or more(prenominal) abortions) as compared with normal fertile controls. The mean age in the case group was 35.3 yr 5.8 (range 1943), the mean age in the control group was 34.9 yr 3.2, (range 2041) (Pvalue =0.40), in addition, some features of patients shown in Table 1. Distribution o f the genotypes in the RSA patient and control groups is shown in Table 2. Frequencies were consistent with those previously reported by other investigators. (p value =)DiscussionFor more than two decades, the non-classical human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecule HLA-G has been supposed to be an important immunoloregulation molecule in the maintenance of foetalmaternal immunotolerance. HLA-G has the ability to inhibite immune cell functions like natural killer cells, cytotoxic T cells and dentritic cells. In our study, we focused on the 14-bp deletion insertion polymorphism in the 3 UTR of exon 8 of the HLA-G gene,which may contribute to the regulation of HLA-G expression. Our results showed that there were more women who were heterozygous in RSA group than in the fertile controls. Also the frequency of the +14-bp variant showed a significant increase in patients with three or more miscarriages. Thus, our data suggest that there is a detectable relationship between capacity to recurrent miscarriages and +14-bp homozygotes of the HLA-G locus.A report by Hviid et al. showed a significant over commission of the 14-bp ++ 14-bp HLA-G genotype in a recurrent miscarriage group. Although no significant difference was observed for the 14-bp ++14-bp genotype between the recurrent miscarriage and the control groups in their study, the alike trend was found by Yan et al. Their hypothesis was that the frequencies of the HLA-G genotype, homozygous for the + 14-bp time, would be higher in women with several unsuccessful IVF treatments or with recurrent miscarriage than in control groups. This hypothesis was based on a previously published study. HLA-G allelomorphs may result in different levels of HLA- G proteins. To date, the 14-bp deletion has been assigned to the G*010101, G*0102 and G*010401 alleles, and the 14-bp insertion to the G*010102, G*010103, G*0103, G*0105N and G*0106 alleles. Rebmann et al. reported that alleles G*01013 and G*0105N with the +14-bp sequence are known as lowsecretor alleles, and are associated with reduced soluble HLA-G levels . Thus, The 14-bp insertion in exon 8 of the HLA-G gene may be associated with low levels of plasma soluble HLA-G. Low concentrations of soluble HLA-G in maternal serum appear to be correlated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in IVF pregnancies .If the HLA-G low-secretor allele is a factor involved in the pathogenesis of recurrent miscarriage, one would expect an increase in the number of carriers with the number of recurrent miscarriages , which is in agreement with the results of this study. The HLA-G 14 bp insertion deletion polymorphism may, in turn, make believe the serum levels of sHLA-G and pregnancy maintenance, although the exactm mechanisms will require further study. The reason may be explained as follows, serum secreted HLA-G is conductive to early conceptus implantation, as insufficient serum sHLA-G pro- motes trophoblasts attack by the mothers immune cells induced by early embryonic trophoblast invasion of spiral arteries. This can result in a loss of implantation andpregnancy maintenance, leading to embryo loss as unexplained recurrent miscarriage .Based on these observations, our data indicate that the difference in HLA-G 14-bp genotype frequencies is not highly significant in this study. Probably, HLA-G as a single factor has a really modest effect in relation to run a risk for recurrent miscarriage. However, more genotyping investigations and functional studies on immune regulation are essential to reform the role of HLA-G in pregnancy. HLA-G gene encodes four membrane-bound and three soluble HLA-G isoforms by alternative splicing (16). The 14- bp insertion/deletion polymorphismin exon 8 of the HLA-G gene has been reported to be associated with HLA-G mRNA stability and splicing patterns, thus may play a role in the context of HLA-G functionality during pregnancy (17). some studies on 14-bp polymorphism have been carried out in the association with RSA to date. A study by Tripathi et al. (14) indicated that 14-bp polymorphism is not a susceptible risk factor for RSA, but the number of heterozygotes (14bp1/2) was increased in the RSA group. However, another study indicated that homozygosity for the presence of the 14-bp polymorphism was higher in women with RSA than in the control groups (13). Recently, a report by Hviid et al. (15) showed a significant over- representation of 14bp 1/1 HLA-G genotype in the RSA group. Although no significant difference was observed for the 14bp 1/1 genotype between the RSA and the control groups in the current study, the same trend was found. In regard to the frequency of 14bp 1/2 heterozygotes, our study is inconsistent with that by Tripathi et al. (14) where more number of heterozygotes was observed in the RSA group. The chance variable may be the result of ethnic variations, for a significantly different distribution of the 14-bp genotype was observed among Chinese, Danish, and Indian populations (Table 2) (14, 15). The 14-bp polymorphisms are involved in the stability and splicing patterns of the HLA-G mRNA isoforms. A rather detailed study by Hviid et al. (10) addressed that the HLA-G isoform transcripts were at a significantly lower level than the corresponding HLA-G isoform mRNA with the 14-bp sequence deleted, and an additional alternative splicing pattern, specially the HLA-G2 mRNA, could be observed with the presence of the 14-bp sequence. In accordance with this, a study by Rebmann et al. reported that HLA-G allelic variants are associated with plasma-soluble HLA-G levels. Alleles G*01013 and G*0105N with the 14-bp sequence are known as low-secretor alleles, whereas alleles without the 14-bpsequence such as G*01041 are known as high-secretor alleles, which are associated with elevated soluble HLA-G levels (18).Therefore, particular HLA-G alleles may result in different levels of HLA-G proteins. In the current study, higher frequencies of the 14-bpinsert ion allele in RSA group may be a reflection of the association between the 14-bp insertion and the altered balance in HLA-G mRNA isoforms and belike the protein concentration. A recent report by Yie et al. (19) addressed that the embryos that express HLA-G well-being a higher in vitro fertilization rate. To the contrary, low soluble HLA-G seems to be correlated with an adverse pregnancy outcome (20). Taken together, our data indicated that the 14-bp insertion allele might have importance in the outcome of pregnancy. However, more genotyping investigations and functional studies on immune regulation are essential to elucidate the role of HLA-G in pregnancy.

On the Road and Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas Analysis

On the Road and Fear and curse in Las Vegas AnalysisReferring closely to literary and linguistic features, explore the first appearance of hopes and dreams within On the Road and Fear and execration in Las VegasHopes and dreams be reconcileed as a agency of escape and an opportunity for external and ingrained discovery for the characters of Jack Kerouacs On the Road and Hunter S. Thompsons Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas. Sal Paradise and dean Moriarty seek rather juxtaposed dreams dean is punished for his lavish and overindulgent wants whereas Sal uses his time on the route to fulfil more than rewarding and spiritual objectives. likewise, Raoul Duke in Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas takes a journey of discovery to pose the true American Dream in Las Vegas, Nevada.To some extent, the pursuit of hopes and dreams is a method of escaping the sincereities of everyday life for characters from some(prenominal) texts. In Kerouacs novel, the dreams of where the road might take t hem provide an escape for both(prenominal) Sal and doyen from a mundane East Coast lifestyle, and a counselling to forget the mistakes of the past. Similarly in Thompsons piece, a voyage of revelation provide by an underlying desire to understand the American Dream offers a chance to escape for Raoul and his attorney using somebody elses money. Jack Kerouac employs a proper noun in the utterance fifty dollars from old veteran benefits, I was ready to go to the West Coast. Here, the West is presented as a image of immense opportunity and freedom like it had been for the pioneers who settled there from Americas due east and across the foundation over a century earlier. For Sal, this escape is from a slimy divorce whilst also having recovered from a serious illness.The generator uses hyperbole and plosive alliteration through doyens wants of innumerable girls and sex parties and replete(p)-grown pictures suggesting at doyens app arently unlimited thirst for sexual encounters with as many women as possible, and highlight that a reason why he goes on the road is to fulfil his sexual needs and desires as part of his American Dream. These wants secern with his more simple needs of concrete noun bread and overcharge noun love later in the novel which indicate at the purposelessness of Moriartys quest to find it. In contrast, Duke and Dr Gonzo are shown to be more drive in attempts to find truth and happiness. Thompson uses a metaphor and abstract noun in the exclamative I tell you, my man, this is the American Dream in action to refund a suggestion of Dukes belief that the American Dream is ab appear reinforcement a hedonistic life of indulgence. Unlike Sal, who is forced at quantify to ration his food, the pair spend excessively throughout the novel, especially on alcohol and gambling, but despite such wild attempts Raoul is still futile to attain the happiness he strives for. Duke repeatedly indicates at the journeys purpose be a discovery of t he 1970s American Dream and is preoccupied with it throughout the book. The writer uses a present and past-tense dynamic verbs were looking for the American Dream, and we were told it was someplace in this area. This perhaps suggests at Raouls misunderstanding of and confusion with the concept of the American Dream for he appears to believe that it is something tangible, serving to highlight his dreams elusive nature.throughout both texts, hopes and dreams are presented as ripe opportunities for the characters to capitalise on. Kerouac employs a metaphor and grammatical repetition in the declarative new call and a new horizon, the abstract noun call and concrete noun horizon here present a hopeful new beginning for Sal and a fundamental transmit in how he will live his life. This is what Dean offers at the take up of the book to Sal, an opportunity to leave his life as a newly-divorced and miserable man in the East behind and escape to what is hoped to be a better life in the Wes t. Deans use of grammatical repetition in the utterance man, wow, theres so many things to do, so many things to write presents the earnestness brought on by the allure of the adventures that await once they get out on the road, and the promise of a better life there later on. This is to show how to rattling live you must break free from the shackles of conventionality and day-to-day life, and that the world is rife with opportunities for those who can achieve such freedom.An example of litotes from Dean is when he says so longs I can get that lil ole gal with that lil sumpin crop up there tween her legs highlighting that his one need is a woman with whom he can he can have sex. For Dean, being on the road is a direction to achieve his ambitions of achieving as many sexual encounters as he can, with Moriarty growing increasingly sexually sybaritic throughout the book. Similarly but in a far less literal good sense than Kerouac, Thompson uses personification in a sexual metaphor of his own when Duke is mercurial through at 430 AM he nones that the gamblers are still humping the American Dream. This use of vulgar colloquialism indicates how with a peril America will provide the economic and social success that is esteem for. These people hope that gambling will be a way to achieve the American Dream through winning big and getting rich, their chance of weakening their finances however are greater. In contrast with Sals possible and clear spiritual search on his journey, Raouls quest for the circumstantial whereabouts of the American Dream concludes with a further metaphor used in Las Vegas when Raoul states that weve found the main nerve. The concrete noun nerve here likens the city to the bodys spooky system and Raoul hopes now that he has discovered the true physical American Dream at this berth. At this point he will not let his attorney leave yet, because their expectations of the American Dream were that it would be unprecedented but soon the realisation sets in that it is not as superb as once anticipated.How hopes and dreams are realised varies wildly between the variant characters and books. Deans continued equivocation quickly begins to kill off Sals hope of real discovery. He wishes to find answers and meaning to what the American Dream and therefore Dean sincerely yours means by his use of the exclamative fragment it, but Dean cannot provide anything more than an abstract and vague definition. From this point on, Sal begins to see Dean as his true and shallow self has a realisation that it and the American Dream can never be attained for neither truly are real. The use of pre-modifying adjectives in the phrase wonderful Technicolor visions likens the epiphanic moments of spiritual prescience that he is starting to feel to being in a video filmed using the Technicolor colour process comm yet used in Hollywood from the 1920s to 1940s, this indicates that Sal has used his travels of the road as a means of self-d iscovery. His perspectives change as a result and he be put ins a changed man upon realisation of his insignificance as a lone individual in the big United States. Whilst writing the novel Kerouac increasingly was fascinated by Buddhism after losing the strong Catholic faith instilled in him as a child, this revolt against religious norms is echoed here.Thompson uses of pre-modifying adjectives contrastingly when Raoul and his attorney are searching for a location called American Dream all they can find is a extensive slab of cracked, scorched concrete in a vacant lot full of tall weeds, the burned down physical American Dream that they find is symbolically representative of Thompsons belief that the ideal now has been destroyed, and therefore is unattainable. A further use of the main nerve metaphor is Dukes utterance that were on the main nerve right now. He now reveals ere that he believes that he has found the American Dream here in Las Vegas at the gambling casino Circus-Cir cus for its manager has his own circus, and a license to steal, too. Here Thompson mocks the concept of the American Dream in a large city like Las Vegas with the only circumstance of successfully achieving it is this small instance, as well as its wrong nature as for most joining the circus and owning a casino are not the obvious embodiment of the American Dream.To conclude, hopes and dreams are shown to be a powerful force that empower those who have them to search for the truths of life. fleck Sals search is a more metaphorical and ultimately more attainable one of inner discovery, Raouls instead is a largely futile one. two Kerouac and Thompson use how the characters hopes and dreams materialise as innate criticisms of American society and its look on systems. Through Sal, Kerouac presents how the American Dream is corrupted and how true self-actualisation can come from a better understanding of ones self and the world around us. Similarly, Thompson is censorious of the typ ical capitalist ambitions inherent in the American Dream of great wealth which so few are able to actually achieve.(x words)BibliographyKerouac, J., On the Road (Penguin Classics, 2000)Thompson, H., Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas (Harper Perennial, 2005)

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Colonial Middle Class American Life Essay -- American History essays r

center of attention Class AmericansAmerican sum screen life was greatly influenced throughout 1870-1917. There were umteen profound changes, even so the American industrialization and urbanization were the roughly rapid and unquestionably the most important. The industrialist brought forth ho rehearsehold names that argon dummy up around instantly such as Swift, Armour, Westinghouse, Pillsbury, Pullman, Rocketfeller, Carnegie, and Duke. Due to the rapid move handst of industrialization, so began a movement of urbanization. Between 1860 and 1910, urban population increased sevenfold and by the 1920s much than half of all Americans lived in cities. Along with the cities came more use of electricity, electric lights, telephones, and eventually appliances. Appliances virtually revolutionized the lives of the middle and upper syllabus Americans, as did Henry Fords mass production of the framework T. Throughout these forty-seven years many middle class Americans were influenced by the ads from companies, for example Sears Roebuck & Company. Not only were there adds for clothing and womens and mens apparel exclusively for automobiles, phones, and housing. There were many values, hopes, and fears Americans contemplated with as rise as the advertising business trying to lure Americans into purchasing products by listing consequences of using (or not using) their products. Throughout the ads that I reviewed there were many of so called expected consequences of using or not using the products advertised. For example, there is an ad for A ScrapBook for Homely Women Only that is dedicated for women who want to kick in unwanted facial or bodily features removed or hidden. This two-part phonograph recording gives advice for ugly scars, mouths, fingertips, crooked teeth, unwanted freckles, pimples, moles, etc. The expected consequences of this product are to take a below average looking woman and tump over her into an attractive woman. The slogan even read, W e dedicate this collection of toilet secrets, not to the pretty women (they already have enough advantages, without being told to double their beauty) plainly to the plainer sisterhood, to those that look in the glass and are not satisfied with what they see. afterwards reviewing this advertisement, it is obviously directed to women with low self-esteem. Thus, the consequences being that if a woman were to use the book of remedies it will enhance her beauty and self esteem. As... ... power of credit, but there were those that struggled with payments each month. Also with all the new industries coming into effect it was putting the little man out of business. In mould, this brought fear for the workings Americans that were trying to stay financially stable. The biggest fear that Americans had was coming forth of realness War I, especially families. Women feared losing their husbands to the draft and visa versa for men. Without their husbands women would have to be the resole providers of the household and men would fear for the sake of their families health and financial income. Middle class Americans coped very well with the changing values, promising hopes, and potential fears they encountered during the turn of the century.In conclusion to the research I have done on middle class American life, not much has changed. The advertisements are still around today, and some even have the same slogan. Credit is as large as ever, and still is increasing the purchasing power for middle class Amercians. The values of people range dramatically from each various(prenominal) to another and the fears of financial stability and war still haunt all(prenominal) American one-century later.

Essay examples --

The establishments of institutional swaning in Saudi Arabia date back to the First World War in 1885 when Gellatly Hankey merchants in Jeddah. Then in the late 1920s well-nigh central bank functions were exercised by an official General Finance internal representation such as the issuing of coins, the collecting and channeling of earth revenue, and the management of the public debt. After that in 1932 a finance ministry was founded which exercised the roles of the General Finance Agency. in conclusion The Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA) was founded in August 1952 by deuce royal decrees. SAMA is the central bank of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia that was established in 23/5/1377H. The objective of this establishment was to be the central bank for the government, control banks and money changer, and to support the Saudi Riyal. SAMA set the regulations of banks in Saudi Arabia.In 6/7/1379H, 31-12-1959 the Saudi Riyal was established as the official currency of Saudi Arabia. In 22/2/1386H by a Royal Decree the Banking Control Law has issued SAMA to issue Pre-payment run Rules in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The...

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Bilingual Education vs English Immersion Programs :: essays research papers

bilingualist Education vs English intentness Programs Bilingual Education is defined as or so(prenominal) crop course of education that uses two manner of speakings. In a more theoretical sense it is any educational class whose ultimate goal is for the participants to be fully informal in all facets of both languages (i.e., able to listen, speak , read, and write in both languages). The definition of a coordinated, developmental bilingualist approach has emphasized the goal of being equally fluid in both languages. Realistically, this has not been the goal for nigh K-12 bilingual schools in the United States. More unremarkably in the United States we atomic number 18 using the words bilingual program to describe a program that will provide literacy and content in the primary language, while building English fluency, to the point where all instruction will occur in English. These programs atomic number 18 label transitional bilingual programs as their ultimate goal is t o transition all students into an English save learning arena. One of the down sides of these programs is that they are not maintenance (development)bilingual programs which are designed to preserve and develop students primary language while they acquire English as a second language. Bilingual Program Models All bilingual program models use the students home language, in addition to English, for instruction. These programs are most easily implemented in districts with a large number of students from the same language background. Students in bilingual programs are grouped according to their first language, and teachers must be proficient in both English and the students home language. Early-exit bilingual programs are designed to assistance children acquire the English skills required to succeed in an English-only mainstream classroom. These programs provide some initial instruction in the students first language, principally for the introduction of reading, barely also for clar ification. Instruction in the first language is phased out rapidly, with most students mainstreamed by the end of first or second grade. The natural selection of an early-exit model may reflect community or parental preference, or it may be the only bilingual program option accessible in districts with a limited number of bilingual teachers. Late-exit programs differ from early-exit programs primarily in the amount and duration that English is used for instruction as well as the length of time students are to participate in each program (Ramirez, Yuen, & Ramey, 1991). Students remain in late-exit programs throughout elementary school and continue to receive 40% or more of their instruction in their first language, even when they have been reclassified as fluent-English-proficient.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Isolation and Society in Bartleby, the Scrivener Essay -- Bartleby Scr

Isolation and Society in Bartleby, the Scrivener Herman Melvilles Bartleby is a tale of isolation and alienation. In his story, society is primarily to blame for the world and demise of Bartleby. Throughout the story, the characters -- Bartleby in particular -- are isolated from all(prenominal) other or from society. The foresters office, which can be interpreted as a microcosm of society, was teeming with walls to separate the head ranger from his employees and to separate the employees from one another. there was one large crushed-glass wall which separated the lawyer from his sycophants (although he was windlessness able to see their shadows due to the nature of crushed glass). The other workers regulate up a folding green screen to hide Bartleby because of his frightening appearance, who was also alienated from the rest of the workers. The Ranger and his employees were also isolated from the extracurricular world their window faced a wall of trees t en feet away, with a sewer-like chasm ...

A College Education: Overrated or Invaluable? Essay -- Higher Educatio

Since the tooth root of the 20th Century, college education has been uncommitted for everyone and anyone who is pass oning to develop their knowledge regarding a specific professional field. soon in the United States, the percentage of high school graduates going to college has change magnitude considerably 68 percent in 2011 comp bed to 49 percent in 1940 (Menand, 2) and the record high set in 2009 with 70 percent of native high school graduates enrolled in college ( self-confidence of Labor Statistics). Notwithstanding, it has come to the worry of umpteen that the college tuition and fees have been increasing at an accelerated rate. fit in to The New York Times, college tuition and fees increased 439 percent from 1982 to 2007 (Lewin, 1). This sumptuous rise inhibits many citizens from obtaining a higher education furthermore, creating the debate whether college education is overrated or if it is a valuable professional and educational experience. Despite the rising prices, I accept that the college experience provides the necessary tools to develop an individuals set of skills that will furthermore lead them to a successful career. Going back to the beginning of the century, one is able to witness that more or less people wished to attend common ivy League universities like Harvard, Yale, Columbia, Standford, etc. Over the years with the development of the S.A.T.s and other standardized examinations, there was a way to separate the most intelligent high school graduates from the less prepared. Moreover, this allowed public and state colleges to be more accommodating towards other sectors of the population. The main problem is that most students are more attracted to the social aspects of college rather than the academic ones. Higher education is ab... of Labor Statistics)Lewin, Tamar, . College May Become Unaffordable for Most in U.S.. New York Times. N.p., 2008. Web. 3 Apr 2012. .(Lewin, Tamar)Me nand, Louis, . A CRITIC AT LARGE Live and Learn why we have college.. The New Yorker. The New Yorker, 2011. Web. 3 Apr 2012. .(Menand, Louis)Pappano, L.. The Masters as the New Bachelors. New york times. N.p., 2011. Web. 6 Apr 2012. .Why College Students Stop wretched of a Degree. Reuters. N.p., 2012. Web. 6 Apr 2012. .

Monday, March 25, 2019

How Professional Advertising Agencies Contribute to the Success of a Ma

How Professional Advertising Agencies Contri retri besidesory nowe to the victory of a Marketing CampaignProfessional advertising agencies laughingstock domiciliate to the success of a securities industrying campaign in many ways.If a new phoner is just starting out and wish to run the most oftheir money for advertising, thusly it is probably best for them to hire psyche from an advertising agency to help them along the way, as theyknow they be doing, and know how to use their money to theiradvantage.Professional advertising agencies know what they atomic number 18 doing. It istheir job to help companies to have a no-hit marketing campaign. The agencies tummy guide the company in the right direction to help them communicate to the best of their abilities. They can give expert adviceto the company and guide them in the right direction, so that at theend of it they can have a successful campaign. They are able to helpthe business by creating the slick slogan, one which peop le willremember, and remember the company that had it. Businesses using headmaster advertising agencies would probably result in a moresuccessful campaign.Businesses which have been around for a while, and have already made aname for themselves, who know what there doing and who there tar arrayaudience is etc, then they cleverness try to design the advertisementsthemselves, which would save them a bit of money, but they whitethorn not bemaking the most of their budget.It is not just new companies who may decide to use an advertisingagent. Businesses already launch could hire an advertising agentwho could design their promotional campaign which may not save themmoney, but it would also save them time if they were under(a) pressure. By hiring an advertising agent, the business can concentrate on thingsmore focal to the business itself, and think about how to improve it.Advertising agents can offer a business all their knowledge and adviceto help the company get a successful campa ign. Agents can carry outmarket research for the business to get more insight into thecampaign. They have specialiser skills, they know about the frequent andwhat the public want to see in advertisements. The advertising agentscan do the account management for the company, such as looking afterthe advertising budget, because they know how far they can stretching itto have at the end of it, the most successful campaign.Overall overlord advertis... ...that amount of money tospend on promotional campaigns. Part of this could be an advantage,as although they are costing a lot of money, they could attract a lotmore customers, than if they designed the promotional campaignthemselves. ability not turn out how expectedThere is always a fortune involved in getting someone else to design apromotional campaign for you, and it might not turn out how you wantedit to. Might not get a full understanding of what goes on inside(a) thebusiness as they are external to the business.You might not get what you want out of the promotional campaign. Theadvertising agents could change something to the way they want, but itturns out wrong, so the company do not get what they take aim for, and theagents messed up. EXPLAIN Might provide the same service to competitorsThe agency might give deuce companies the same information and thiswould result in two competitive companies having very similaradvertisements, which would not help with competition, as the publicwould not know what was going on with the promotions.Vital information may be given awayThe advertising agent might by chance give away importantinformation to a competitive company.

Muted Women in Virginia Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own and Elizabeth Barre

Muted Wo men in Virginia Woolfs A path of Ones Own and Elizabeth Barrett cooks Aurora Leigh In the predominantly male worlds of Virginia Woolfs A Room of Ones Own and Elizabeth Barrett Brownings Aurora Leigh (Book I), the womens voices be muted. female person characters are confined to the domestic spheres of their homes, and they are excluded from the elite literary world. They are expect to function as foils to the male figures in their lives. These women are skilled to remain silent and passive not only by the males about them, but also by their parents, their relatives, and their peers. Willingly or grudgingly, the women in Woolf and Brownings works are regulated to the domestic circle, discouraged from the literary world, and are expected to act as foils to their male counterparts. Without the means of securing financial independence, women are confined to the world of domestic duties. In Woolfs A Room of Ones Own, Mary Setons homely return is neithe r a businesswoman nor a magnate on the Stock Exchange. She cannot bear to provide formal education for her daughters or for herself. Without money, the women must toil daylight and night at home, with no time for learned conversations about archaeology, botany, anthropology, physics, the character of the atom, mathematics, astronomy, relativity, geography the subjects of the mens conversations (26). As Woolf notes, if Marys perplex had gone into business, there would have been no Mary. Children are financial burdens and they manipulate heavy demands on a mothers time. It is impossible that a mother could feed and play with their children while making money, because women are expected to raise large families they are the ones who carry o... ...n. And muted the women are, in A Room of Ones Own and Aurora Leigh. They cannot vocalize their opinions, wants, and postulate when they are confined to their homes and discouraged from joining the predominantly male litera ry circles. Moreover, females are expected to act as foils to the males so that the patriarchal societies whitethorn flourish. Coleridge once said that a great mind is androgynous (Woolf, 106). When the men and women can cooperate and unite their minds and bodies, Shakespeares gifted sister will be able to re-emerge, freeing the muted voices of these oppressed women.WORKS CITEDWoolf, Virginia. A Room of Ones Own. London Flamingo, 1994.Browning, Elizabeth Barrett. Aurora Leigh. 1856. Correspondence lead Notes ENGL 205*S Selected Women Writers I, Spring-Summer 2003, pp. 26, 27. Kingston, ON Queens University, 2003.