Saturday, August 31, 2019
Can you Write My Dissertation for Me Absolutely, but let us share some ideas that will help you get started. Writing a dissertation is a daunting challenge. Many talented and knowledgeable students lack the deftness to write a dissertation. This has more to do with the actual task of writing. Academic expertise, research and time constraints are common issues but committed students will overcome these hurdles. Dissertations get rejected for a myriad of reasons. One of the most common reasons is the quality of writing. A dissertation has to be heavy on facts. There is little room for opinions and absolutely no scope for opinions without substantiating evidence. Since a dissertation is more technical in nature, most students are overwhelmed with the facts of the case and hence tend to lose sight of the quality of writing. This is the primary reason why you should hire an expert to write your dissertation for you.Can you Write My Dissertation for Me?Jumpstart the ProcessOne of the first advantages of hiring an expert to write my dissertation for me is jumpstarting the whole process. Many stude nts, including doctoral and postdoctoral fellows, have enough information at their disposal. There is no dearth of research, albeit there can be some incoherence in the vision. The gamut of information is often overwhelming. The ambit of purpose, problem, research questions, methodology or methods and eventual conclusion or inference can be enormous and it can unsettle even the smartest student pursuing a specific degree in a chosen discipline. These develop as the initial roadblocks. Many students simply donÃ¢â¬â¢t manage to get around to starting the process of writing their dissertation. All such scenarios that fuel procrastination can be easily dealt with by hiring an expert writer. The writer is getting paid for writing my dissertation for me. The writer does not have to deal with the various distractions that I as a student would have. Also, the writer is already familiar with the various methods that can be used to compile available information for a chosen topic and write the dissertation according to the provided instructions.Fast Turnaround TimeMany students take weeks to write their dissertation. Some students take months. Hiring an expert to write my dissertation for me will reduce this turnaround time to days. Most experts will be able to deliver the dissertation within a week. Some may be able to do it in two days. Of course the actual turnaround time will depend on the nature and scope of the dissertation, also the expertise of the writer and the type of instructions provided. Regardless of these variations, a proficient writer with relevant expertise will be able to write my dissertation for me much faster than me.Deftness in Writing and Domain ExpertiseWhen anyone hires a dissertation writer, the focus is twofold. One, the professional should be a deft writer. Two, the writer must have domain expertise. This twofold focus or criteria helps all students to get the best of both the worlds. Every dissertation has to be of an impeccable standard and it can only be so when it combines excellent writing and subject matter expertise. There are many students who are rather good with words but lack technical acumen. There are many technical wizards who are found wanting when it comes to the written word. Professional dissertation writing service assures both. You can actually look for specific domain expertise or even subcategories while hiring an expert.Editing is Included in the ServiceUnless mentioned otherwise and explicitly so , your dissertation would not only be written but also edited. This is crucial. Most dissertations will be unacceptable in their first draft. Some dissertations require several rounds of reviewing and revising. Editing is absolutely unavoidable. No student has ever written a perfect dissertation in their first attempt. Chances are high that a professional writer would do a much better job than a student who has no prior experience in writing dissertations but one or a few rounds of review is often imperative. Fortunately, such rounds of editing are included in the service. There is no additional fee you need to pay for editing, revisions or even normal reviews of spelling, grammar and factual accuracy.Enhanced Objectivity while Reviewing a DissertationHiring someone write my dissertation for me allows me to distance myself from the written piece and I can put on my hat as a subject matter expert to contemplate if I am convinced with what has been presented. When anyone writes a piec e, there is some degree of objectivity that is compromised. Even the finest analytical mind can be a little generous or lenient during self assessments. This augurs well for you when you hire a writer as you can be more pragmatic and objective with your assessment and take advantage of the included editing service.Free Plagiarism CheckA dissertation should not be plagiarized. This is a rule that applies to every discipline all around the world and regardless of the degree one is pursuing. Many people consciously plagiarize. Some students are unaware of the fact that their ideas or thoughts may not be original or unique and that their written dissertation may have stark similarities with other dissertations. This becomes obvious to the examiners and they immediately reject the dissertation. Plagiarism is a serious offense in academia. As a student, you may or may not have any means at your disposal to ensure that your dissertation is not plagiarized. Professional dissertation writing services include a plagiarism check for free. Even if it is chargeable, it is included in the total fee. You would get to use plagiarism checking tools that you wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have access to otherwise. There arenÃ¢â¬â¢t many options at your disposal to ensure that your dissertation is original. The best you can do is be genuine with your thoughts and write the dissertation without consciously or subconsciously reflecting what you may have read somewhere.Better Odds of Getting ApprovedProfessional dissertation writing services improve the odds in your favor. Since a dissertation can get rejected immediately on grounds of plagiarism, poor writing, incoherence, lack of alignment, poor citation, use of excessive quotes and little originality, dearth of factual information or inaccuracies, a professional writer with domain expertise will easily improve the chances of your dissertation getting approved by taking care of all these potential problems. A professional writer with relevant domain expertise would have the precious experience of having written dissertations of the kind you need. The writer would know exactly what it takes to pen the perfect dissertation and is also astutely aware of the grounds on the bases of which one can be rejected. Professional writers have a consciously proactive approach to avoid the errors that students may not be aware of. There are writers who have penned hundreds of dissertations and hence they know precisely what is sought by examiners. They are also aware of the kinds of dissertations that are already accepted and perhaps published so their own assessment becomes a preliminary plagiarism checker.Write My Dissertation for MeStudents who excel in academics and have a natural penchant for writing can always write their own dissertations. They may do an excellent job. Despite the odds in their favor, such students too will benefit by hiring a professional writer. Their dissertations may be tra nsformed from good to better or from acceptable to excellent. A dissertation has to satiate the purpose and it must also impress. Most examiners are looking to get dazzled by the pupils. A dissertation that does not stand out or shine in some way will definitely fail to impress.
Children began to move back into the cities. This caused the strain upon the British government, money was need to support huge propaganda campaigns to get parents to send children back into the countryside. As soon as the phoney war was over and cities became the targets of German bombers there was a rush to get the children back to the countryside, meaning a second trip for many, a waste of both time and money. In spite of all this evacuation was a success as its valuable points outweigh the bad. When German bombers gave up on attacking British airfields and military targets, they employed the tactics of bombing British cities, hoping the country would give in by submission. This was known as the Blitz, during which Britain suffered over 43,000 casualties (a relative low number compared to bombing raids on Japan and Germany in the latter stages of the war) and only a small percentage of these were children. The whole event, though it had faults was planned from 1935 and planned well. Albeit speed proved not to be crucial for the evacuation, the British managed to evacuate a million and a half people in 4 days Ã¢â¬â an impressive feat by any standard. The transportation was also well organised with many trains leaving from the city into the countryside and all reaching their destination without hindrance. With the number of people being evacuated, accomplishing anything of worth was a formidable task. In spite of this, schools were relocated, so children could continue with their schooling. The government did not make foster parenting a completely thankless tasks, the governments paid carers (a good incentive for some though many were already rich). There was also the social good of the evacuation. Will many city people eventually ending up in the countryside there was a mix of cultures Ã¢â¬â rural people could see how badly some people in the city lived, and the city children could learn more about the countryside. For many children a new way of living had been introduced to them. Though these factors were of no significant value to the war effort but helped improve people conceptions of the country. Considering things from a military prospective, the evacuation was a success. During the war, the Luftwaffe battled ferociously with the Royal Air Force. However the Germans changed their tactics, instead of bombing airfields and military installations they concentrated on major cities. Though not widely publicised, Britain suffered greatly from the bombings. Nearing the end of the war, the Germans changed their bombing tactics again, they now used the dreaded V1 planes and later on the V2 rockets. The latter caused much death and destruction and no defence could be found. Britain lost many buildings and lives. BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s casualties for children however was relatively low, because most were safe in the countryside. The safety of the children was a boost for moral, workers knew that their children were safe. Cities would also operate more efficiently with out the hinderance of the elderly, young and disabled. Ã¢â¬Å"Evacuation was a great successÃ¢â¬ I believe so.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Auto World Inc. (AWI) is a leading automotive retail and service chain. They have many operating segments comprised of two different centers 10 miles apart from each other. Pit Stop Centers (PSC) offer service labor, installed merchandise, and tires while their Auto Boyz Centers (ABC) sells automotive merchandise. AWI has a plan to close their operating segment PSC to change their current operating structure to improve and efficiently deliver retail products and automotive services by providing their customers with a Ã¢â¬Ëone stopÃ¢â¬â¢ shopping for Ã¢â¬Ëdo-it-yourselfÃ¢â¬â¢ retail customers and Ã¢â¬Ëdo-it-for-meÃ¢â¬â¢ customersÃ¢â¬ (PSC Case). AWI expects this change to enhance their ability to increase market share, improve sales, and company earnings. This change in restructuring will have an effect on current earnings and will need to be reported properly in their 2007 Income Statement. AWI must report this continuing activity properly under US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). The FASB Accounting Standards Codification (ASC), commonly known as GAAP has specific standards that must be followed in order to classify the disposal of an entity as discontinued or continues operation of a component of an entity. Under the guidance of numerous ASCÃ¢â¬â¢s, AWI does not meet the two conditions to report their PSC closures as discontinued operations. The criteria used, assessment period, presentation, and disclosure for this retail company will be explained in detail when applying proper GAAP. A component of an entity comprises operations and cash flows that can be clearly distinguished, operationally and for financial reporting purposes, from the rest of the entity; it may be a reportable segment or an operating segment, a reporting unit, a subsidiary, or an asset group in which Auto World determined correctly under the first requirement that the PSC met the definition of a Ã¢â¬Å"component of an entityÃ¢â¬ (ASC 205-20-20). The two conditions for reporting the disposed transaction as discontinued operations are: The results of operations of a component of an entity that either has been disposed of or is classified as held for sale under the requirements of paragraph 360-10-45-9, shall be reported in discontinued operations in accordance with paragraph 205-20-45-3 if both of the following conditions are met: 1. The operations and cash flows of the component have been (or will be) eliminated from the ongoing operations of the entity as a result of the disposal transaction. 2. The entity will not have any significant continuing involvement in the operations of the component after the disposal transaction (ASC 205-20-45-1). Several steps below will be used to explain why the disposal of the PSC stores should be considered a continuation of operations rather than discontinue of operations (ASC 205-20-55-3). These three steps along with their respective answers are also depicted in a flow chart (see Appendix A). Step one asks are continuing cash flows expected to be generated by the ongoing entity? Yes, the continuing cash flows are being generated by ABC from transactions with customers from PSC. Step two asks if the continuing cash flows result from a migration or continuation of activities. The continuing cash flows are the result of a migration from the closed PSCÃ¢â¬â¢s to the Ã¢â¬Å"one stopÃ¢â¬ ABC. ABC sells products similar to those sold in the closed retail stores. After the closure of the Pit Stop Centers, Auto World estimates that there will be continuing cash flows from the sale of automotive services and tires by the ongoing ABCÃ¢â¬â¢s of approximately $600 million. Auto World estimates that the Pit Stop Centers would have generated approximately $700 million of sales absent the disposal transaction (PSC Case). Step three asks if the continuing cash flows are significant. Yes, the ongoing ABC estimates the continuing cash inflows will approximate 86 percent (see Appendix B) of that would have been generated by PSCÃ¢â¬â¢s absent the disposal transaction. AWI is expecting these actions to generate significant cash flow in 2007 and to increase free cash flow in 2008. AWI is also expecting to yield improvements in operating earnings of approximately $58 million in 2008 to be significant leading to the classification as a discontinued operation to be inappropriate (ASC 205-20-55-70). Since stakeholders rely on financial statements to base their decisions and to project future cash flows, current information presented must be accurate under GAAP Under the second requirement, one issue I have identified is the intentions of managementÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions to improve their companyÃ¢â¬â¢s net earnings. The professional literature I relied on are these two statements, Ã¢â¬Å"the actions we are announcing today will further enhance our ability to increase market share and improve sales and earnings at our companyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"in this regard, we remain committed to the automotive business and we expect to deliver significant additional profitable growthÃ¢â¬ were made by Mr. Bobby, chairman and chief executive officer. When considering the use and disclosure of restructuring charges, depending on the industry, there should not be re-occurring Ã¢â¬Å"restructuring costÃ¢â¬ line item on the Income Statement year after year. Closing the PSC stores as of the second quarter in June 2007 is an event taking place in 2007 which can happen only once. If management continues to show this type of special/unusual charge in future periods, the question of integrity should be raised. Management does not want to give off the impression of possibly smoothing earnings by using restructuring charges. Ã¢â¬Å"Once a decision to restructure is made, GAAP requires companies to estimate the future costs they expect to incur to carry out the restructuring for such things as plant closings (AWI currently estimates it will incur restructuring and other charges totaling $52 million pre-tax). These estimated restructuring costs are then charged to an expense account with an offsetting credit to a liability account (Restructuring reserve) in the current periodÃ¢â¬ (Revsine, pg 155). In developing my recommendation and conclusion for resolving this issue, management should make a foot note explaining these changes which will allow stakeholders to make better decisions. The new re-structured ABC will continue to sell automotive parts that were previously sold through the PSCÃ¢â¬â¢s, and under the ASC, PSC store closures are not considered and cannot be reported as a discontinued operation in AWIÃ¢â¬â¢s second quarter financial statements. The continuing cash flows are being generated by ABC from transactions with customers from PSC, given by the level of significance of 86 percent for this continuing cash flow subsequent to the disposal transaction.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
E-Commerce Payment Methods - Research Paper Example Continuous studies reveal that offering alternative methods of paying increase sales because of the fact that, the several options of payment offered by an electronic store increases the likelihood for customers to find a mode that suits them best when making a purchase online. This paper will take a research that expounds on electronic commerce payment methods and their affluence on todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. Bill Me Later Different people have different views regarding some methods of settling debts. Likely, as a shopper, you have used several of the most popular methods of payment . However, when it comes to setting up a Web shop, exactly what does storekeeper require in order providing a choice of modes of payments to his customers? This research outlines the steps needed to take to incorporate three popular alternative methods of payment, which include Bill Me Later, Google Checkout, and Pay Pal in to a business . To begin with, Bill Me Later is an optional form of payment the, with reference to the vice president of Bill Me Later, marketing department Vince Talbert, this instrument has more than 3 million users within 700 sites and 300 call centers worldwide. During the interview, Vince Talbert said, this company offers its clients a lower cost compared to credit cards and as surprising as it may sound, it assumes the hazards of fraud for both the merchants and consumers thus guaranteeing payment for merchants3. Further findings reveal that, Bill Me Later requires a merchant account whereby, a bank extends a credit line to a business so that the business can accept payment by major credit card. In so doing, if an online merchant finds it necessary to incorporate this method into his site, Vince Talbert said the process is a straightforward one. When a willing client contacts Bill Me Later, the company representative leads him through the task required to fold the requisite data into the existing merchant account. After, to get it up and running on a site, the process is two fold. On one end, there is basic HTML work and on the other, the client needs to fill some merchant processor database work. This research revealed that, this company provides sample code together with promotional messaging and a check out screen that electronic businesses can use while at their sites. The designers the response of Bill Me Later designed it to work just like a response of an authorization card making it easy for merchants to store it in their systems. Bill Me Later is advantageous over its competitors because, according to Vince, Bill Me Later is just as simple as a Master card or Visa card transaction on both the front and back end. Consumers provide a small amount of identification data; mainly their date of birth and the last four digits of their Social Security number and authorization process take place within three seconds. This mode of payment has no complications as it only requires merchants to keep their code of response in their ordering or fulfillment management system in order for them to be able to generate settlement requests the same way they do in the case of processing a credit card4. Google Check out With Google Checkout, merchants are able to charge the credit cards of their customers and do order tracking via the fulfillment process as well as receive payments of orders in bank account. This research carried a critical evaluation whereby it foun d out that, unlike Bill Me later, Google Checkout does not require someone to have a merchant bank account.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Evidenced Based Practice Paper - Essay Example The patient population affected the significance of the problem, when the problem became significant, and the current practice and probable proposed change in practice will also be discussed. Spirit of Inquiry The topic of coronary artery bypass graft versus percutaneous coronary stent insertion was an interesting topic to me because I have been doing coronary artery bypass surgery for the past twelve years. During these twelve years, a decline in open coronary bypass has decreased in numbers drastically. Invasive interventional radiology, a new trend in medicine to treat coronary disease without open surgery, has sent the open-heart surgery market down to non-existence. Stent placement has increased, but is it the best treatment? The populations involved in this treatment are adults having acute myocardial infarctions (MI) needing stent placement or open-heart surgery. The adult population being between the ages of 60-70 with an occasional patient in theyÃ¢â¬â¢re fifties. One problem using stents, instead of opting for open surgery, is that a person could keep coming back for repeat stent placements due to reoccurring angina, thrombosis, and eventually ends up with open surgery after one year anyway (Cohen et al., 2011, p. 1016). Another problem with stent placement is the incidence of stroke or death and quality of life (Kajimoto, Miyauchi, Yamamoto, Daida, & Amano, 2012, p. 155). This population is targeted because there is a higher incidence of Obesity, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, Hypothyroidism, and Hyperlipidemia that are leading causes of Coronary Artery Disease. This clinical problem became a significant problem when stent placement during a cardiac catheterization is easier to do than open-hear t surgery (Arjomand, McCormick, Turi, & et al., 2003, p. 790). It has decreased open bypass drastically as mentioned above. With the stent placement, patients are on Plavix, which is expensive, and with the open procedure they are not required to be on blood thinners as a rule. I am really not sure if there is preferred current practices per say, but I think it is left up to the Interventional cardiologist. He decides who gets a stent, how many and if they should be consulted out to a heart surgeon. A good clinical example is a patient that was forty-two years old went to the catheterization lab and received four stents, two to the right coronary artery, one to the circumflex, and one to diagonal. Two months later, the guy came back with angina and back pain. Another catheterization was done and his right coronary stent had a thrombosis and closed off. He then was consulted out to the heart surgeon. If the open procedure with arterial and vein grafts were done first this second cath eterization could have been averted. On the other hand, who plays God and makes these guidelines and choices. To understand each procedure, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) and Open Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Law of International Trade Element - Essay Example to the rule under CIF contract the end consignee cannot reject the bill after its payment, despite unknowingly having no ideal due to the changed information. Nevertheless, there had no additional clause to exclude any transaction with the original shipper. He is hence left with accusations of the carrier which lie on false deceit and breach of contract for delivering false representation. The arising issues from the problem scenario between the original owner (Li) of the brown sugar goods and the last buyer (Xu) were as a consequent of rushed sales where an opportune buyer existed. The second seller (Chen) sought to sell the goods to Xu who allegedly had developed some poor reputation for any transaction with Li, due to poor delivery timing. The problems addresses the bill of lading, specifically the misconception of the actual shipper of the goods, accuracy in the bill of lading, and the issue of one bill at the time of payment in the agreed cash against documents transaction. The sellers of the goods under CIF contract have specific obligations they are required to fulfill with respect to shipment of the sold items at the load port. Under the CIF contract, the shipping documents and in this case the bill of lading is very crucial o enable future transactions of the buyer concerning the goods being shipped. The seller is responsible of acquiring or preparing the correct shipping documents and tender them to the consignee (buyer) to an individual he has nominated (Galdes, 2001). With respect to this statement both the sellers had made efforts to obtain the bill of lading for their buyers. Chen used the shipping documents that had been delivered to him from Li and no matter the hurry to sell the goods Xu while they were still on shipment, a bill of lading was presented to Xu. The seller had accomplished his mission in shipping the document though a single one. The other duties of the seller concern the shipped goods to the destination port. The seller is
Monday, August 26, 2019
Competition in School - Assignment Example Some feel competition helps each person to hone their creative skills. For students who study in design schools, the nurturing of individual creativity is important because they must continually innovate. When competition is involved, students take risks they might not otherwise take to create something unique enough to be noteworthy. It means students summon their most creative talent. Many students like Elizabeth Young, a former student of the University of California, argues students learn more about their natural talent in competitive environment. It is considered as the "whetstone of talent." Competition also helps the students to work as teams and create success together. Competition affects the general welfare of society. Competition leads to jealousy and envy among people. It is true that competition may be helpful in giving people the drive to design better projects, but this is not really where the story ends. People may actually turn against each other personally due to professional competition. Educator Mary Pat Lynch shares that in such harsh competition winning becomes the focus instead of learning. All students care about is the grade and no effort is made to actually understand the ideas involved.
Sunday, August 25, 2019
South Korea as the Most Sensitive Optimal Option - Assignment Example The country has also been found to have the lowest inflation rates meaning the stability of cost will be on high. The reliability of suppliers in the country can be interpreted to mean that the quality of products will be at an all-time high. With the best cumulative probability risk for cost labor, planning ahead for the cost of labor is possible. The probability of the cost changing is very low. All these builds on the weight measure trait of maximum cost stability. The infrastructure status of the country and the supplier reliability minimizes the cost of operation for the company. The high number of students enrolling in schools and the high number of people speaking English within the country, project an attainment of maximum geographical and demographic location. The second-ranked country is the Czech Republic with the best G.D.P growth, regional vehicle production, currency issuer credit rating, investment cost, supplier reliability and school enrolment. All these features are traits that propel the Czech Republic to be ranked the send best option after South Korea based on the four weight traits. The locally produced vehicles enable maximum use of the geographical and demographic location. The vehicles are customized to cover the terrains of the country more suitable than imported cars. An advantage of the locally produced vehicles is that they are affordable since there is no importation fee on them. The best decision is not perfect without any challenges. It is also surrounded by a number of challenges that make it not be an ideal situation. The Republic of South Korea is faced with a high corruption perception index, and labor cost. These were the two traits that ranked lowest compare to all the other nations. The investment cost and regional vehicle production of the country are moderate compared to the other countries.Ã
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Discourse Reflection 1 - Essay Example The reason for this goes beyond the linguistic consideration, also documented by Subbiondo (2005), to consideration of how a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural and educational backgrounds cause passivity among international students in class. Therefore, the article evaluates the perceptions of silence and reticence among NNS students in group discussions and recommending pedagogical solutions. Jones (1999) acknowledges that Asians constitute the majority of international students in Australasia and the US. As such, the researcher carries out a literature survey from various secondary sources to determine the perception of Asians on silence and reticence in group discussions in class. The findings indicate that teachers in the surveyed institutions consider Asian students as polite and inactive in class and hence find it better dealing with European, American and Australian students. It was also observed that majority of the teachers have little knowledge on non-Western culture which deters communication between Asian students and teachers. On their part, the students were found not to be keen to learn the host culture despite its great influence in defining the academic system. The students from southeast and northeast Asia in the US, New Zealand and Australia consider reticence and silence as crucial for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s moral disposition and for maintenance of harmony of so cial order. I support this observation because even scholars like Paltridge (2006) document that face and politeness vary among cultures and societies. Therefore, the study recommends the need to provide the NNS students with an understanding of the culture of academic English speaking and equip them with the requisite participatory skills. EFL teachers have to be sensitive in class and attend training for cross-cultural awareness. According to Shemshadsara (2012),
Friday, August 23, 2019
Microsoft High School - Case Study Example One of the critical challenges that faced the company in the 80s was developing a career track for those who were individual contributors at best and those who were managers or had potential to be managers. This arose due to the fact the company being an IT company, technical people were mostly hired who may or may not be managers. The solution was to allow people to remain technical experts and get the same opportunity to advance in terms of compensation, promotion and recognition as those in the management track. Ladder levels for determining vertical movement were based on an individual's job nature, together with his experience, skill and performance. In addition, growth was also made possible with horizontal transfers from one job to another. New hires were also encouraged to learn from mentoring from those who were company seniors. IT industry's explosive growth, thousands of ... When the company reached its 20,000th employee mark, Bill Gates viewed this as an important challenge facing the company where the values at its inception responsible for its success were at stake. As a response, the HR group started measuring employee attitudes. A finding in the late 1990s was that even if attrition rates or voluntary resignations were half those of industry levels, at the higher positions, resignations were closer to industry rates. With "Organizational Health Index" (OHI), a part of the annual employee survey, the focus was turned on the work environment as a tool for retention and on a more fundamental level, "keeping the entrepreneurial spirit alive" that made Microsoft what it was. Ballmer's two priorities was to accomplish this was first to change Microsoft's vision from "a computer on every desk and in every home running on Microsoft software" to "to empower people to do anything they want, any place they want, and on any device". The second strategy was to e mpower leaders within the company to clear obstacles, make decisions quickly and clearly define goals. Another challenge was how to identify managers and leaders who are capable of developing people. In order to meet this challenge, Microsoft embarked on a series of programs to identify potential leaders and it became the priority of Steve Ballmer, Microsoft president to develop leaders within the company. As a result of these programs, it was found out that the sources of leadership development were primarily from the jobs currently held at 70%, from mentoring at 20% and from training at 10%. With its maturity as a large-scale organization, a top concern emerged in the 1990s to
The culture of caution - Essay Example What does Patterson mean by the culture of caution Use his analysis of the life of Marcus Garvey and the immigrants' experience to illustrate how that theory plays out. How does he link the life of Garvey, Powell and Farrakhan and immigrants to that culture of caution This insecurity has also brought about a theory that Caribbeans, especially the Anglophone Caribbeans perform much better abroad than they do on their homeland. For example, Marcus Garvey of Jamaica was able to galvanize Black Americas into action, to defend their human rights, decades ago George Padmore of Trinidad was also able to champion postwar African independence movement, has brought about a high degree of paternity for the nation of Ghana, as the first nation to be independent in Black Africa. Arthur Lewis of Saint Lucia was unable to gain employment or opportunities that fit his talents at home, so he migrated to England and then the United states, where he had an outstanding public service career and was also a distinguished academician which led to his being awarded the Nobel Prize for his amazing work on Third World economics.The functions of the immigrant organizations in North America include the implementation of the various immigration laws, issuance of travel documents, carrying out Checks for Case Processing Fees, and the checking of immigrants into the US to ensure ensure that they qualify under the provisions of the Immigration and Nationality Act.The immigrant organizations also make sure that criminal aliens and immigrants involved in crime, who have been incarcerated within the federal, state or local prison facilities are not just let into the community again, after they might have completed their sentences. Immigrant organizations avail field level law enforcement officers of the training programs required of them, like programs for correctional personnel, and providing certified instructors to conduct such trainings. Immigrant authorities use the National Security Entry-Exit Registration System (NSEERS) to determine when a high-risk alien overstays his visa or fails to report his address and activities after 30 days in the United States. It is vital for state and local police officers have access to information, and are able to act upon such information when they meet an NSEERS violator, for example, in a traffic stop. Also, if a criminal alien is purposely avoiding contact with law enforcement agencies, this might be the only possible way to stop him, and maybe defuse a possible terrorist attack. Other functions of immigration authorities include the Arrest of Suspected Terrorists, Observations of Potential Terrorist Activity, Interception of immigrant or Alien Smuggling and Arrest of Absconders The immigrant organizations in the United States also serve to ensure that immigrants into the United States qualify under the provisions of the Immigration and Nationality Act. The second half of the 19th century was characterized by an increase in westward expansion, and industrialization. Also, there was an influx of millions of immigrants. A lot of native-born Americans began to clamor for implementation if immigration restrictions, but others supported the Americanization of these
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Project Mercury and Its Legacy Essay In the twentieth century, the United States and the Soviet Union engaged in a competition called the Space Race. This was a race to who would be the first country to send a rocket and a human being up into space. Although the Soviet Union was the first to send both a rocket and a human up into space, the United States successfully carried out a space mission called Project Mercury. Project Mercury was carried out in 1959 and came to a conclusion in 1963. It was the first human spaceflight program that was undertaken by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). From when it was first introduced, to when the space mission was carried out, and when it had succumbed to its end, Project Mercury became an important mission which left one of the greatest legacies in United States history. In the initiation of Project Mercury, the government began a search for seven great Americans who would become United Statess first astronauts. To be considered for the position, the Americans had to meet some requirements, which were as follows: needed to be test pilots, needed to be no taller than 511, needed to weigh no more than 180 pounds, needed to be under the age of forty, needed to have a Bachelors degree or equivalent, have 1,500 hours of flying time, and have qualifications for flying jets. In addition to the requirements, the pilots had to go through rigorous testing and training that would assure that they were capable handling problems the spacecraft and the flight may pose on them. Out of the handful of pilots who met these requirements, only seven were chosen to become Americas first astronauts who were Alan Shepard, Gus Grissom, John Glenn, Scott Carpenter, Wally Schirra, Gordon Cooper, and Deke Slayton. Since these flights were going to be manned, NASA contracted Max Faget as the primary designer, along with a team of engineers to build the Mercury Spacecraft. Its design was a cone-shaped one-man capsule with a cylinder mounted on top. Two meters (6 ft, 10 in) long, 1.9 meters (6 ft, 2 1/2 in) in diameter, a 5.8 meter (19 ft, 2 in) escape tower was fastened to the cylinder of the capsule. The blunt end was covered with an ablative heat shield to protect it against the 3000 degree heat of entry into the atmosphere (Mercury Spacecraft). This design would be the first capsule that would go up into space. Project Mercury was finally undertaken after all of the seven American Astronauts were physically and mentally prepared, the spacecraft was built, and the rockets were safe to launch. Before America could send the first human up into space, they needed to make sure that the rocket was not going to blow up as it had done in launch tests. Engineers and scientists were working hard to accomplish this, but trial after trial, the rockets were always blowing up. Finally, NASA was able to perfect the rocket, and on May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard was the first American to be launched into space on the spacecraft called Freedom 7. This event was one of the greatest moments for America which anticipated further launches into space to explore what is beyond Earths atmosphere. The second flight was manned by Gus Grissom who was launched into space on the spacecraft called Liberty Bell on July 21, 1961. He successfully was able to complete a suborbital flight, but as he landed, his spacecraft hatch blew open and NASA was not able to recover the spacecraft. The first American to orbit the Earth was the third flight using the Friendship 7 spacecraft that was manned by John Glenn on February 20, 1962. He was only able to orbit the Earth three times due to concerns about the spacecrafts heat shield. Then, on May 15, 1963, Gordon Cooper became the first American to be in space for over a day and successfully orbited the Earth twenty-two times using the Faith 7 spacecraft. He was also the last American astronaut to be launched into space alone. Ultimately, Project Mercury came to its end creating one of the greatest legacies of United States history. The overall cost for Project Mercury added up to $1.6 billion in inflation-adjusted dollars (Program Cost). There are numerous legacies that Project Mercury left to Americans. One of those legacies is the will of America to continue the space programs after President John F. Kennedy said that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before the decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth (President Kennedys Challenge). Also, Project Mercurys greatest legacy is that it was United States first successful human spaceflight program. Project Mercury also influenced author Tom Wolfe who wrote the book The Right Stuff, which was later developed into a movie directed by Philip Kaufman. In conclusion, from the inception and up to the end of the space program, Project Mercury was a prominent accomplishment for the United States, leaving one of the greatest legacies for America. It changed the game of how America would accomplish its goals of becoming the first country to send an astronaut to the moon. At the end, the seven American astronauts who were chosen to be part of the space program will always be part of United States history and Project Mercury will continue to be the reason for where we are today pertaining to Americas advanced space program.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
The Contradicting Gorgias Philosophy On The Non Existent Philosophy Essay Existence, this word affects many primitive philosophers. One of these is Gorgias, he is a nihilist or a person who believes nothing exists, or that the world is incomprehensible, and that the concept of truth is fictitious. He said that Nothing exists; Even if something exists, nothing can be known about it; and Even if something can be known about it, knowledge about it cant be communicated to others. Even if it can be communicated, it cannot be understood. HeideggerÃ says that the fundamental problem of metaphysics is why there are beings rather than nothing. As it happens, and as Heidegger was certainly aware, there was an answer to this in the earliest days of Greek philosophy.Ã ParmenidesÃ said, For you could not know that which is not (that is impossible) nor utter it; for the same thing can be thought as can be [the same thing exists for thinking as for being]. That which can be spoken and thought must be; for it is possible for it, but not for nothing, to be; that is what I bid you ponder [The Presocratic Philosophers, G.S. Kirk J.E. Raven, Cambridge University Press, 1964, pp.269-270]. The short answer is thus that beings exist rather than nothing because thereÃ cannot beÃ nothing. 1The argument that Parmenides offers is that for us to think about something or talk about something, there must be something but nothing by definition is not something. Therefore, we cannot think about it or talk about it, and should not. In other words, we cannot properly use the concept; and when we dont, things like coming into being and perishing. which require non-existence, stop to exist. B. Statement of the problem This study sought to prove that the philosophy of Gorgias about the Non- existent is wrong. The researchers also sought the answers to the following questions: 1. What is existence? 2. How something can exist? 3. How can you sure that something is really existing? C. Significance of the study The researchers hope that the findings of this study helps and give new ideas to the readers. As long as the other philosophers that actually contradicted to Gorgias that this also has the point of view. 2 D. Scope and limitation This research contained the contradicting philosophy of the researchers towards to the philosophy of Gorgias about the Existence. This contains the different perspectives of various philosophers. CHAPTER 2 OVERVIEW ABOUT THE EXISTENCE A. The Existence According to Wikipedia, The word existence comes from theÃ LatinÃ wordÃ existereÃ meaning to appear, to arise, to become, or to be, but literally, it means to stand out. It says that the existence can actually define when something is recognized. Some says that, it is theÃ worldÃ we areÃ awareÃ or consciousÃ of through ourÃ senses, and thatÃ persistsÃ independently without them.Ã Others define it to be everything that most people believeÃ in. When something is already existed in that kind of instance probably it would already knew by others. It is affirmative to the question of whether it is then when we say existence it is always actual and opposed by its nature. And according to SchopenhauerÃ claimed that everything that exists for knowledge, and hence the whole of this world, is only object in relation to the subject, perception of the perceiver, in a word, representation.Ã According to him there can be No object without subject because everything o bjective is already conditioned as such in manifold ways by the knowing subject with the forms of its knowing, and presupposes these forms. MaterialismÃ holds that the only thing that exists isÃ matter that all things are composed of material, and all phenomena or consciousness are the result of material interactions. 3 B. Being The word being is a noun. According to Gilsons theory, it signifies either a being (that is, the substance, nature, and essence of anything existent), or being itself, a property common to all that which can rightly be said to be. The same word is the present participle of the verb to be. As a verb, it no longer signifies something that is, nor even existence in general, but rather the very act whereby any given reality actually is, or exists. Let us call this act a to be, in contradistinction to what is commonly called a being. It appears at once that, at least to the mind, the relation of to be to being is not a reciprocal one. Being is conceivable; to be is not. We cannot possibly conceive an is except as belonging to some thing that is, or exists. But the reverse is not true. Being is quite conceivable apart from actual existence; so much so that the very first and the most universal of all the distinctions in the realm of being is that which divides it into two classes, that of the real and that of the possible. Whether or not an object is present in a set; that is, exists there as a being, is based on universal experience or evidence of it. Existing objects are present to the experience of anyone. It is a legitimate goal therefore for philosophers of being to try to find a principle or element a something accounting for the presence of the object over the other possibility, its non-presence.Ã In Parmenides philosophy, he begins what he takes to a self-evident truth: it is. It is a truth of reason. It cannot be denied if you say, it is not, then you have proved that it is; for if nothing, its not nothing, rather it is something. Parmenides believed that being is rational; that only what can be thought can exist. Since nothing cannot be thought, there is no nothing, there is only being. 4 C. Cogito Ergo Sum Through reasoning there is a claim that cannot be doubted: when one contemplates one existence, it is not possible to have the slightest doubt that one does in fact exist (Cogito, Ergo Sum I think therefore I am); a philosophical Latin statement proposed byÃ RenÃ © Descartes.Ã The I in claim is not a physical person but an immaterial mind. The Cogito can only prove that I think. And he might just as well infer from it the existence of thought as the existence of I, one cannot be doubted that he thinks, therefore if you think, you are using your mind so your mind is existing. 5 CHAPTER 3 ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSION Based on the data that the researchers gathered, the researchers cannot say that there is nothing because if theres nothing, there will nothing to be explained or theres nothing to be communicate. If a man thinks, there will be a something that can explain or can communicate with, in contradiction to the philosophy of Gorgias that Nothing exists; Even if something exists, nothing can be known about it; and even if something can be known about it, knowledge about it cant be communicated to others. Even if it can be communicated, it cannot be understood. So if its true that it cannot be understood, therefore theres no use for him to have a philosophy of nothing because he use to know that there will no knowledge to be understood. For this reason, theres no sense of having a teacher, professor, philosopher, orator etc. if there will no way of understanding. In this case, he himself is having a non-sense philosophy of nothing because the value of a word, phrase, sentence or a paragraph i s based on its knowledge that we can get from it. By the justification of Being of Parmenides, even the things that come into your mind is existing, even if its not existing the present time, it is existing in your mind. We can say that the mind is place where those specific things you think exist. It is it is a truth of reason. It cannot be denied if you say, it is not, then you have proved that it is; for if nothing, its not nothing, rather it is something. Parmenides believed that being is rational; that only what can be thought can exist. Since nothing cannot be thought, there is no nothing, there is only being. And based on the responses of the philosophers about Existence, few of them were actually believe that there can exist. One of them is Rene Descartes perspective. The cogito(mind) can exist through thinking. It more proves that a person is existing by knowing that his mind I existing because whenever you think, you are existing.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Theoretical And Practical Approach To Theatre Making Theatre Essay This piece uncovers both the physiological and scientific actions behind the presentation of the voice. As an actor, theatre practitioner or theorist, we become aware that the presentation of communication is not a mere ability to speak, but an action from a complex organ which is bound up with our emotions and understanding which directs our physiological reflexes. For Linklater, the conveying of emotion must mean the feeling of emotion since our voice is powered by our very breath. Breath is chemically and physically linked to the bodys capacity and state of serenity. The natural relaxed voice occurs when the body is harmonious, relaxed and warm but any element of stress, excitement distraction can cause breath influxes which create tension and resonance which creates a new tone and inflection. (Linklater, 1976) Linklaters next piece continues that communication with the voice is not always the conveying of speech. However, in Western theatre it is recognised that speech and language is a primary form of expression. The voice and the actor must therefore become one. Both must be in their neutral state but not joined as they are in the actors human life but rejoined, both neutral and aligned to negotiate the new adornment of character in which to convey new expression. In this sense the actors own imagery behind their speech must be put aside and a new imagery must come from the character, this must occur organically, through exercises and development. Only here can the actor and their voice become unique and spontaneous in their role. Furthermore the learning of lines must be absorbed into the heart creating an understanding between the actor and their role. The actor must know more than the character in order to respond instinctively and naturally vocally within the action. (Linklater, 2006) Berry: Vocal Development In this chapter Berry focuses on the theory behind the vocal exercises he developed. These exercises help to convey how Linklaters ideas can be worked. For Berry the voice of the actor must be separated from the voice of the person and preconceived ideas. The way the individual communicates, their own anxieties and tensions must be removed in order to release full vocal potential. Berry laments that one can only get the best vocally if exercises are partaken. There are three stages of development for Berry. The first is relaxation and breathing. In this stage the actor develops the ability for vocal power by increasing the use of the lips and tongue. The second stage is the application of this to the actors role. They must be aware that their own vocal inhibitions are bound up with their acting voice, and that what they hear is not what the audience hears. Relying on their own voice would lead to a predictable style of acting, instead the actor must use these exercise to free the voi ce and allow the emotion of the role to become one with the voice, preventing the need for predictable pushing out and expression of emotions. Finally the third stage is the belief in both the exercises and an understanding of the second stage to create vocal freedom. The development of the voice through these three stages of exercises will create a new freedom, allowing the voice to respond instinctively to the action, beyond thought and technicality of the actors thoughts, but instead naturally and freely. (Berry, 1978) Lecoq: The Art of Mime Contrary to mimes generic image of speechless and silent expression, Lecoqs writings on mime express the important of the voice and indeed the concepts of freedom in movement and vocal as discussed above. Fundamentally Lecoq rejects the notion of mime being the expression of words without sound. The clichÃ ©d image of the mime, with exaggerated movements and facial expression, Lecoq would suggest fails to convey the practice of mime and its true art form. Mime in its simplest form is the idea of imitation. Here we can understand the art of dramatic mime that Lecoq discusses. This is creation of a theatrical situation with the body, often involving the impersonation of peoples. Such artists create the illusion of the person they mimic, vocally, in body and action. Their art lies in the ability to be this person in alternate scenarios. The actor must feel the movement, gestures and emotions as if they are their own, only the theatrics occurs when the addition of the actors true self i s added, their ownership of the movements produces the essence of mimicry. Symbolic mime requires the actor to partake in absolute mime, creating the environment and opening the audiences imagination. This requires a consistency of action, an understanding of the weight, placement and true abilities of the objects in the illusion. Finally there is the use of plastic mime, the use of the body as a language perhaps used with the constraints of face masks. The body must convey the story whilst the face illuminates the emotion. Lecoq theories a system for conveying mime through exercises designed to able the body. However, Lecoq laments that this system of exercises once used must be discarded of a true and spontaneous performance is to be conveyed. The body moves spontaneously, with reflective action and the system of exercises must not prevent this. All rhythm is organic and no two rhythms are the same and this is key to the creation of the art of mime. (Lecoq, 2006) Jos Houben: The Neutral Mask Once again this piece focuses on the freedom of expression necessary in acting. Through mask work, Shrubsall speaks of Houbens techniques, as inspired by Mosho Feldenkrais and Jacques Lecoq. The ability to separate and un-clutter ones own psychology which lays behind all our human movement, readying the body for meaningful spontaneous movement using techniques such as understanding the relationship between different parts of the body and their related movements. This is conveyed in the important of the mask in acting. The mask will only exist if there is a connection between the actor and the mask. They must become the mask. When the actor looks to the sky, the mask must convey this use of sight, his head expressing the movement and his back and shoulders responding as such. This piece is about the use of organic and functional movement, free from judgement and prior interpretation. (Shrubsall, 2002) Murray: Practical Exercises In this chapter Murray attempts to produce a series of exercises in which to share the experience of Lecoqs theatre and understanding how to prepare ones body for theatre as expressed by Lecoq. Murray defines the fundamental principles behind Lecoqs theories and hence his exercises. It is the idea that essentially movement provokes emotion and the body remembers this. This chapter focuses mainly on the teaching of these actual exercises rather than the theory behind but considers most primarily the bodys relationship between push and pull, balance and imbalance in the creation of Lecoqs work on tragedy, melodrama the neural mask and commedia delarte. (Murray, 2003) Conclusion There is a theme within these readings, that of body and movement in space and time incorporating ideas of freedom without influence. In order to grasp this freedom the readings suggest that the use of exercises is of prime importance for the natural, free vocal and bodied actor. The muscles of the mind and body must be warm and content in order to open up the actors full potential. There is the suggestion that acting without such consideration is meaningless and insincere. That to act is to be free from our human constraints.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Social and Intellectual Barriers in the Classroom Peggy Orenstein's School Girls is a book about adolescent girls, and how low levels of self-esteem and confidence can hinder a positive self-image and contribute to poor academic performance. Orenstein compares and contrasts the experiences of girls from two different junior high schools, Weston and Audubon, and finds that factors such as family, culture, teacher attitude and social class affect girls differently. By looking at both Audubon and Weston from an academic standpoint, one would find that there are more barriers between Audubon students and education, than there are for students at Weston. Ninety percent of the students at Audubon represent everything but "the white and the wealthy" (136): they are "African-American, Latino, Asian, or Filipino" (137). According to Orenstein, two-thirds of these students are poverty-stricken and come from lower class, and perhaps single parent households. Unlike economically advantaged school districts, lower class students are reminded daily that they will never excel beyond their current status, and will only represent or contribute to a national statistic of academic failure. Not only are the students at Audubon reminded of their race and class status, they are ignored in the classroom. In Mr. Krieger's English class, students are given a license to conduct their own lessons--lessons on conversation skills and classroom chaos: "Within fifteen minutes, however, he has mined that vein to exhaustion, and the class degenerates into chaosÃ¢â¬ ¦one of the boys is stuffing a friend into a supply closet with the assistance of roughly half t he class, while Mr. Krieger sits at the front of the room chattingÃ¢â¬ ¦" (139). An educational environm... ...ool, the students from both schools academically perform in accordance with what is expected of them. Because the students from Audubon come from low-income families, teachers and administrators set minimal expectations for student performance. There are more barriers between Audubon students and education because they are reminded daily that economic constraints equal underachievement; and thus, the students are being deprived of an education. On the other hand, the students at Weston Middle School have every opportunity to learn, and do--they learn how to fulfill gender roles in the classroom. The girls at Weston find passive resistance acceptable behavior because not only do gender biases exist in the classroom, they exist in the home and the workplace. Thus, these girls are taught that it is acceptable to be ignored, overpowered and reduced to just "girls."
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Humorous Wedding Speech Made by a Fellow Teacher Ladies and gentlemen, it's an honour to be standing here. I suppose I should actually say it's an honour and a pleasure, but I know the pleasure wonÃ¢â¬â¢t kick in until this speech part is over. I must admit to being a little surprised when James invited me to his wedding as I only met him a few years ago. But on reflection, I think he was swayed by the fact that I know very little about the first years of his life, which therefore puts some rather embarrassing stories out of reach. James and I have been close ever since we met whilst (while) teaching at Ferndale secondary school - so close, in fact, that he has told me secrets that nobody else knows. One of those secrets is that James keeps a diary. In preparation for this speech, I decided to swipe his diary and would now like to read to you a few of the entries that chart the blossoming romance between James and Anis. [pull out a diary prop] So here it goes: September 5th 1998 Ã¢â¬â Today was my first day as a teacher. When the kids got out of line, I just got loud and acted tough like dad does. I hope they don't realize that I am really just a big sissy. September 6th 1998 Ã¢â¬â A pretty teacher at school talked to me today. That was weird. September 7th 1998 Ã¢â¬â I said Ã¢â¬Å"hiÃ¢â¬ to the pretty girl today. It's a good thing Jason [best man] taught me how to be cool. September 13th 1998 Ã¢â¬â Ate dinner at Pizza Hut tonight with Jason, Sarah, and the pretty girl named Anis. I think I like her. September 14th 1998 Ã¢â¬â I couldn't sleep last night with all the butterflies in my stomach. I think I like this girl more than my car. September 15th 1998 Ã¢â¬â Jason is the coolest guy I know. I hope he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t decide to go out with Anis. September 14th 1998 Ã¢â¬â Anis kissed me. It was amazing. I haven't kissed a girl since FreshersÃ¢â¬â¢ Week at Uni (the university). December 7th 2001 Ã¢â¬â I proposed to Anis today. She accepted, but only after criticizing my way of kneeling. This is one of the happiest days of my life. Unfortunately, I can't see much because I've been crying like a little girl.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Anderson Anonymous Graduate Student Liberty University In what proves to be a compelling presentation of the Journey to spiritual freedom, Dry. Neil T. Anderson (2000) presents his theory of how one may be liberated from negative thoughts, irrational feelings, and habitual sins in his book, The Bondage Breaker. Anderson (2000) suggests the cause of a majority of problems which are discussed within the walls of a counseling session may have roots in the supernatural. This critique will examine Andersen's theory of ways to combat the dark forces which cause spiritual conflict within the mind. Theory SummaryIn his clarification of the nature of psychological problems and mental illness, Anderson (2000) places a high emphasis on spiritual warfare; reminding the reader, Ã¢â¬Å"For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty through God to the pulling down of strong holdsÃ¢â¬ (2 Corinthians 10:4, KAVA). Anderson provides many examples of counsel whom he believes have succumbed to the deceptive tricks of Satan, explaining what may have been diagnosed as mental illness is actually spiritual oppression; or in cases of non-Christians, actual demon possession (Anderson, 2000). By drawing attention to scripture in Pall's letter to Timothy,Anderson illustrates his point: Ã¢â¬Å"But the Spirit explicitly says that in later times some will fall away from the faith, paying attention to deceitful spirits and doctrines of demonsÃ¢â¬ (l Timothy 4:1, NASA). Thankfully, Anderson (2000) provides a detailed method of obtaining daily victory over the spiritual forces of darkness by outlining what Hawkins (2010) would refer to as a method of Ã¢â¬Å"discipleship counselingÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â the seven steps to freedom in Christ. The freedom and protection which is afforded by the Christian is stressed, as well as the position of authority Christians have over the enemy.Freedom is accomplished by taking the first step of acknowledging one's dependence upon and affirming one' s identity in Christ and renouncing past or present involvement in any practice, teaching, or ritual which could be considered demonic or non-Christian in nature. Anderson (2000) further explains, not only is it important to renounce non-Christian activity, but also to recognize and renounce instances of idolatry. Additionally, forgiveness, submitting to higher authority, adopting a humble attitude, confession of sins, and finally breaking generational ruses is necessary.As every thought is taken captive and brought into alignment and obedience to Christ (I. E. II Corinthians 10:5), the deception which has caused one to live amidst shadows, shackled by the power of the enemy, may be traded for truth, grace, and a freedom in Christ (Anderson, 2000). Evaluation of Strengths and Weaknesses While readers of The Bondage Breaker may consider the handling of the subject matter controversial, depending upon their background and experience in things which occur in the spiritual realm, Anders on (2000) does well in his presentation of he influence Satan has on the thought processes of individuals.A great amount of focus is spent on encouraging readers to grasp the main objective of truly knowing their value or self-worth in Christ. Not letting one's guard down is imperative. Once the enemy is given a foothold into a person's life via a thought process, it can become overwhelmingly disabling to try to maintain a positive outlook (Anderson, 2000). In adopting the principles of The Bondage Breaker, the counselor becomes equipped to engage in spiritual warfare within the counseling arena (Anderson, 2000).Through the use of prayer, and Ã¢â¬Å"warfare theology' (Hawkins, 2010, slide 5), the appropriation of freedom may become a reality in the life of the counsel. Anderson (2000) references the scriptures throughout and is careful to confirm his writing with God's Word. As is it this author's opinion that God's Word is the final authority, comfort was taken in the fact Anderson was thorough in his scriptural references (Anderson, 2000). In addition, Andersen's (2000) explanation of demonic oppression was described in a way as to eliminate any sensationalism such as what may be arrayed in movies or books.Instead, Anderson presented the reality of Satin's tactics as being sly in his method of simply infiltrating peoples' thought processes. Stories shared were compelling in their ability to illustrate the workings of the enemy in that respect (Anderson, 2000). However, as compelling as most examples appeared, a weakness in Andersen's theory was that he placed much emphasis on what might be interpreted by some as Ã¢â¬Å"the devil made me do itÃ¢â¬ and not enough consideration that some psychological problems could be caused by environment or experiences Anderson, 2000).For example, a female client who presents with severe cognitive trauma over years of sexual abuse may not simply be suffering emotionally because of a thought introduced by the enemy, but ha s some tough issues with which to deal based on her experience. While is it true our thoughts are responsible for our natural state as evidenced by Proverbs 23:AAA: Ã¢â¬Å"For as he thinks within himself, so he is,Ã¢â¬ (NASA), credence must be given to what happens in the physical realm. In fact, in one of the most celebrated books of biblical literature, Job is tormented by Satan, not just in his thoughts, but physically and materially as well.Job suffered greatly. He found himself depressed, sitting in a pile of ashes. By no means was his depression a result of sin, as Job was called righteous (I. E. Ezekiel 14:14). Perhaps he was listening to the enemy's accusations, however, the catalyst for the depression were the events that Satan caused in his life. The wretched boils Job suffered were not a result of his inability to resist temptation, or reject the accusations of the enemy, as Anderson (2000) might have agreed, based on his presentation of other medical cases wrought his book.In comparison to the discussion Anderson (2000) presents regarding his client with multiple sclerosis, this author also lives with MS. While in complete agreement there are days when the disease process is made worse by thoughts induced by the enemy, the symptoms of the disease do not disappear simply because the thoughts the enemy incites are renounced. Andersen's (2000) description of relapsing-remitting MS or the type of MS where Ã¢â¬Å"symptoms which seem to come and go' (p. 4) are presented as being psychosomatic, or induced by the client's response to thoughts from the enemy. This author takes umbrage of Andersen's (2000) assessment and would expect a more careful understanding of the science behind the disease process in spite of his discussion of the Two-Tier Worldview in which he states Ã¢â¬Å"the spiritual world has no or little practical bearing on the natural world; we have practically excluded it from our understanding of reality' (p. 30). This brings up another w eakness: lack of empirical evidence for the theory.Andersen's (2000) theory may be extremely difficult to prove scientifically, therefore causing concern among the secular counselors who would be reluctant to purport any theory not backed by empirical evidence. While there is no question God is powerful enough to heal without the help of modern medicine, care should be taken not to negate the members of the medical and mental health communities whom this author believes have been granted wisdom by God to be used in the healing process.Personal Reflection and Application Having been raised in a church environment which taught members of the congregation to recognize and appreciate the existence of what may be occurring in the concentric circle of the supernatural system (Hawkins, 2010) or spiritual realm; his author was familiar with the theory presented by Anderson (2000) in The Bondage Breaker. An appreciation for the three channels of temptation about which Anderson speaks had bee n in the forefront of this writer's mind; especially the Ã¢â¬Å"pride of life,Ã¢â¬ as it is believed pride is the root of all sin (Anderson, 2000).Looking back over the past, there was a time when pride was an issue in this author's life, yet it was unrecognized. On a Sunday evening church service during testimony time, this then high school student sat listening to stories of friends who were praising God for ringing them out of a life filled with drugs, promiscuity, and any number of other sins. The testimony shared by this author bestowed praise to God for keeping her from all the sins which seemed to plague her friends.Pall's first letter to the Corinthian church warns, Ã¢â¬Å"Therefore let him who thinks he stands take heed lest he fallÃ¢â¬ (l Corinthians 10:12, INKS). In Just a few short weeks as a college freshman, this writer found herself in a lesbian relationship. The inability or refusal to recognize pride allowed the enemy to gain a foothold into this future counse lor's life. That foothold eventually became a stronghold. The end result was years of living in disobedience; in bondage to a lifestyle of homosexuality which obviously managed to wreak havoc on any previous connection shared between this writer and her Lord.Peace was impossible. After years of encountering the gentle wooing of the Holy Spirit, eventually, the conviction experienced was too much for this author to bear; at which time, the employment of Andersen's (2000) seven steps to freedom in Christ was set in motion: confession of sin, a willingness to renounce completely the homosexual lifestyle, repent, recognize the deception of the enemy and instead embrace God's truth, forgive, submit to God, swallow pride, experience freedom, and finally receive the blessing.The process of moving from bondage to freedom in Christ was laborious, and physically and emotionally draining. However, the end result of a happy marriage with a loving husband and beautiful daughter, as well as the k nowledge of living in right relationship with the Lord brings a peace like no other. The positional peace which once was evident when she became a Christian as a young girl, again was ruling in this author's heart as she allowed God's Word to dwell there (I. E. Colombians 3:15-16). The process of embracing the Truth became a liberating friend (Anderson, 2000).Realizing in this day of tolerance and political correctness, the subject of homosexuality may be extremely controversial; however it remains the belief of this author that one cannot pick and choose which parts of God's Word one is willing to accept as truth. One of the reasons this author seeks to become a Licensed Professional Counselor is that she hopes to eventually work with young women who are willing to shed the blinders set upon them by the enemy of their souls; who share a willingness to embrace God's truth for their lives, and escape f life of sin.As work will be done when counseling individuals in order to apply the principles set forth in The Bondage Breaker, this future counselor understands the process of sanctification is not an easy one. However, as Anderson (2000) reminds the reader, while never-ending; the rewards far outweigh the weight of the struggle. Reference Anderson, N. T. (2006). The bondage breaker (New and Expanded Edition). Eugene, OR: Harvest House Publishers. Hawkins, R. (2010). The contribution of Neil Anderson and discipleship counseling. Lynchburg, VA: Liberty University.
STATE AUDITING IN THE PHILIPPINES Reported by: MYRLA P. SEDENIO RUTH C. TACUJAN A. OBJECTIVES I. To Discuss the State Audit System 2. To Identify Issues and Limitations of Government Auditing 3. To Discuss the Measurement of Government Performance B. INTRODUCTION The Philippine Constitution emphasizes the importance of accountability in the government. Article XI simply and bluntly begins: Ã¢â¬Å"Public office is a public trust,Ã¢â¬ before it adds that officials and employees should serve the people with Ã¢â¬Å"responsibility, integrity, loyalty and efficiency. Ã In the government budget cycle, accountability is laid down by the need for government agencies and departments submit to submit quarterly and monthly income statements; statements of allotment, obligations and balances along with other financial reports and documents for audit Ã¢â¬â a formal process whereby the authenticity, accuracy and reliability of financial accounts or transactions are checked and approved.The re are several kinds of audit: One is Financial Auditing wherein financial transactions and accounts are checked to ensure the submitting government agency has complied with the rules and regulations, specifically the pre-agreed and government accounting system. Another type is Performance Auditing whereby one is looking at the systems of the agency to assess it has delivered on its institutional purpose and mandate by linking the budgets with results or results-based budgets. An internal audit, as the name suggests, an internal check on agency systems and processes.External Auditing involves an outside audit body being brought in to look at the agency. Pre-auditing refers to auditing by agencies before approval of transactions while post-auditing is auditing by an independent body after. The Philippine government has agencies mandated to ensure accountability and transparency on its overall operations. These agencies are: The Office of the Ombudsman, Sandiganbayan, Presidential Ant i-Graft Commission, the Civil Service Commission and primarily, for the purpose of this paper, the Commission on Audit. C. STATE AUDIT SYSTEMAuditing is the examination of information by a third party other than the preparer or user with the intention of establishing its realibility, and the reporting of the results of this examination with the expectation of increasing the usefulness of the information to the user. Commission on Audit The Commission on Audit (COA) is the constitutional commission mandated to be the supreme audit institution of the government. It has jurisdiction over national government agencies, local government units, government-owned and controlled corporations and non-government organizations receiving benefits and subsidies from the government.The Constitution identified the following functions for the Commission:Ã 1. Examine, audit and settle all accounts pertaining to the revenue and receipts of, and expenditures or uses of funds and property owned or hel d in trust by, or pertaining to, the government; 2. Promulgate accounting and auditing rules and regulations including those for the prevention and disallowance of irregular, unnecessary, excessive, extravagant or unconscionable expenditures, or uses of government funds and properties; 3.Submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on the financial condition and operation of the government; 4. Recommend measures to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of government operations; 5. Keep the general accounts of government and preserve the vouchers and supporting papers pertaining thereto; 6. Decide any case brought before it within 60 days; 7. Perform such other duties and functions as may be provided by law. COA, as the other constitutional commissions are mandated, is headed by a Chairman and two Commissioners appointed by the President and the Commission on Appointments of Congress.It also enjoys fiscal autonomy which means its appropriations must be released regularl y and automatically. The Commission also deploys resident auditors in all national government agencies, local government units and government-owned and controlled corporations pursuant to its mandate to review each agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial operations in a risk-based audit approach. The Commission on Audit (COA) has developed and introduced a risk-based audit approach (RBAA) that emphasizes the need for the auditors to focus on high-risk areas that are potential breeding grounds for graft and corruption.Auditing plays an important role in public finance, the Auditing Code of the Philippines was promulgated in 1979 (P. D. 1445). As it proceeds mainly from the basic law, the Code amplifies, elaborates, specifies, and implements Under the declaration of policy in the Auditing Code, it is stated that all resources of the government shall be managed, spent and utilized in accordance with law and regulations and safeguard against loss or wastage through illegal or improper disposition, wi th a view to ensuring efficiency, economy and effectiveness in the operations of government.COA reports In order to perform its audit functions, COA produces different kinds of reports. A study by the Philippine National Budget Monitoring Project identified and explained each of these: 1. Regular Annual Audit Report of each NGA, LGU and GOCC 2. Consolidated Annual Financial Report for NGAs, LGUs and GOCCs 3. Special Audit Reports 4. Circulars and other Issuances The Annual Audit Reports contain the results of the audit conducted on the financial statements submitted by agencies, local government units and government-owned and controlled corporations to COA auditors.The results are shown in the form of audit opinions indicating how the agencies faired with their financial statements at the end of each fiscal year. The types of audit opinions are: Unqualified (U), Qualified (Q), Adverse (A) and Disclaimer (D). An Unqualified Opinion refers to the Ã¢â¬Å"clean opinionÃ¢â¬ or the age ncy reflected the results of the financial statements fairly, which means its operations and the financial condition in a period of time based on existing government accounting standards, and in compliance with government laws, rules and regulations.A Qualified Opinion means that an agency reflected fairly except for some specific transactions and/or accounts that have been found to be problematic, either improper, questionable or needs further explanations. Adverse opinion means that the financial statements did not fairly present its results of operations and financial condition of the agency, and are not in compliance with prescribed laws and applicable guidelines. Lastly, the Disclaimer opinion means that Ã¢â¬Å"there is no sufficient basis to form any opinionÃ¢â¬ for an agency does not keep or submit its records of financial accounts and transactions.An audit report has the following parts: Audit Certificate, which shows the audit opinion, the Financial Statements, Major Fin dings and Observations which explains if there are defects in the compliance of accounting and auditing rules and policies, and Recommendations to the entities. In turn, COA checks if these measures were conformed by the entity on the next yearÃ¢â¬â¢s annual audit report. The Consolidated Annual Financial Reports on the other hand show the financial performance of the public sector in general.Each level has a volume of the consolidated financial report, one each for NGAs, LGUs and GOCCs. These are based on the audit reports of each entity. These reports contain the financial condition and highlights of agencies, local government units and government corporations. These reports also reflect the financial resources of the government, even the off-budget accounts or funds that are not subject to annual appropriations. Interestingly, these reports are the only source where one can be informed about funds that are not sourced out from appropriations.Special Audit Reports are purposely for investigation, in response to a request by interested parties or by a directive from Congress. The Commission has already undergone special audit reports on the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s outstanding debt and special purpose funds such as the Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act and procurement of the Department of Public Works and Highways. GAFMIS The Government Accountancy and Financial Management Information System (GAFMIS) is a financial database which keeps the general accounts of the government.It is spearheaded by the COA so as to implement its mandated function. Thru this, the appropriations are verified and allotment releases to agencies are ensured not to exceed the appropriations. From the Department of Budget Management (DBM), copies of Agency Budget Matrices (ABM) and Special Allotment release Orders (SARO) are submitted to GAFMIS and these make up the Registry of Appropriations and Allotments. The GAFMIS is also essential because it assists government agencies with th e Electronic New Government Accounting System (e-NGAS).It is a computerized program of the New Government Accounting System wherein budget transactions, allotments and obligations are recorded and monitored electronically. It also helps in streamlining the New Government Accounting System which provides the new accounting policies in the government. Some of the basic features of the new system are the Accrual accounting and One-fund concept. Accrual accounting recognizes the income when earned and expenses when incurred as oppose to recognizing income when cash is earned and expenses when paid.Internal control and the internal control system Internal control is defined as a process effected by an organization's structure, work and authority flows, people and management information systems which are designed to help it accomplish its goals. It is a means by which an organization's resources are directed, monitored, and measured. It plays an important role in preventing and detecting fraud and protecting the organization's resources. Internal audit is an integral part of internal control. It maintains efficiency and effectiveness in operations.It looks at the reliability of financial transactions in reports by making sure that they are in accordance with rules and regulations. Several provisions in the Philippines have signified the internal control in the government such as Section 123 of the amended Presidential Decree 1445, the Administrative Code 1987 and Government Accounting and Auditing Manual guided by worldwide standards thru the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and International Organization for Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSAI). The INTOSAI also formulated standards for the internal control systems in the public sector.It has emphasized that internal control systems shall be in line with the characteristics, values and context of the public organizations. In line with these provisions, the Government has formulated the National Government Internal Control System (NGICS) through the efforts of the DBM and resource and reference panels from various government agencies. It serves as a guide to government agencies in putting up internal control systems. It aims to strengthen accountability, safeguard assets, promote efficiency, economy and effectiveness in the operations and adhere with the policies of the organization. D.Issues and Problems of Government Auditing In her public budgeting and accounting class, the late professor Emilia Boncodin stressed some issues on COAs mandate and the accounting and auditing system of the government as follows: 1. The audit system looks only on the agencies compliance with the accounting standards and laws in the financial reports instead of finding if the agencies have properly allocated their appropriate budgets. 2. Reporting of the GOCCÃ¢â¬â¢s entire budget What is reported in the government budget documents regarding the GOCCs are the budgetary support to government c orporations or subsidies only.Yet, COA audits the corporate operating expenses on the entire budget of government corporations. 3. Lax in penalizing because COA is limited to recommendatory functions only Adverse/disclaimer audit opinions and recommendations by COA to government agencies do not have the corresponding penalties or sanctions if they are not acted upon and followed. An example is DPWHÃ¢â¬â¢s audit report where it has been given an adverse opinion for the past 18 years. 4. Pre-Audit vs. Post audit Each type of audit has its own problems.PostÃ¢â¬âaudit is disadvantageous because it involves final evaluation of financial transaction Ã¢â¬â that is after the funds have already been disbursed. Pre-audit however, ironically defeats the overall essential purpose of auditing because financial transactions are assessed beforehand. In the past, COA had been operating on post audit basis since 1995-2009 when COA circular 2009-002 reinstituted the selective pre-auditing due to rising incidents and anomalous disbursements. However, Circular 2009-003 in June 16 2009 suspended some of the provisions in the earlier circular to ensure uniformity and consistency in its implementation.On COA reports The Philippine National Budget Monitoring Project has identified the following limitations that affect the importance of COA reports in ensuring accountability: 1. Timeliness COAÃ¢â¬â¢s deadline on the submission of reports is not parallel to the schedule of budget preparation. Audit and financial reports must be submitted by end of September while budget preparation time ends in July when the CongressÃ¢â¬â¢ session opens. The timings would thus work best if reversed since the reports should serve as aids in reviewing the agenciesÃ¢â¬â¢ budgets in time for budget legislation.Given the reality, the value of COAÃ¢â¬â¢s reports being used as tools to determine the status of government entities in terms of financial performance and compliance with rules are n ullified. 2. Completeness Audit reports of agencies are not completed on time due to inability of personnel and time constraints. In effect, this puts problems in reviewing the budget and in making the annual financial reports. 3. Availability Although COAÃ¢â¬â¢s website is useful in terms of the reports posted, many reports from agencies including those from LGUs and GOCCs are currently missing. 4. Contestability of findingsThere are issues on COAÃ¢â¬â¢s findings on its reports. First is that the some of the past findings have not been resolved yet or the so-called Ã¢â¬Å"hereditary balance sheets. Ã¢â¬ An example is the disallowances that must be deducted by agencies to employees. However, these have not been resolved even if some personnel have already left the service or died. Secondly, there is the inconsistency of audit rules by resident auditors. In some agencies, the rules of past auditors and new auditors differ like deductions that were not present in the past have already been installed at the time the new auditor comes to office.The third issue is the unreasonable application of rules and regulations in auditing. Some expenses are disallowed even if it yields good results. The last issue is the inability of auditors to understand the situation of agenciesÃ¢â¬â¢ operations. The operations have complexities that emergencies become inevitable and it is hard for them to look at the reasons for the issues in operations. 5. Feasibility of recommendations The COAÃ¢â¬â¢s recommendations on reports are not always being followed by agencies and these are already beyond the control of the institution. 6. Conflict of interestCOA auditors are still considered as Ã¢â¬Å"mere mortalsÃ¢â¬ that may experience biases, influences and errors in judgment. There are often claims that some auditors are complicit in bribery and graft. On internal control and the internal control system The NGICS has identified the following limitations of internal control: H uman error, i. e. , errors in judgment such as internal auditorÃ¢â¬â¢s biases/conflict of interest, negligence, misunderstanding, fatigue, distraction, collusion, abuse, etc. 1. Shifts in government policies or programs 2. Resource constraints 3. Organizational changes; and 4. Management attitudeE. Measurement of Government Performance Under COA Resolution No. 2002-005 dated May 17, 2002, the Special Audit Office was renamed Management Services to expand its services to include: a. Conduct of Value-For-Money audits and related operations review activities. b. Provide management consultancy services to other government agencies in such areas as: * Organization * Strategy Formulation * Financial Feasibility * Strategic Planning * Other related areas c. Coordinate with all offices of the Commission for the purpose of establishing feedback mechanisms on implemented innovations. d.Formulate recommendations to the Chairman on the adoption of the most appropriate systems for the enhancem ent of operations. e. Perform such other functions as may be assigned. Recently, the Office is assigned to conduct Rate and Levy audits. The functions: Conduct of Value-For-Money (VFM) Audit This audit is concerned with the review of management efficiency with the end in view of eliminating waste and promoting efficient use of public funds and resources and the ascertainment of the agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness by determining whether desired results have been achieved and programs have accomplished their purposes and objectives.Approaches in the conduct of VFM audits Agency-based approach An audit of a particular program, project or activity of a selected agency. Government-wide and Sectoral Performance Audits Government-wide and Sectoral Performance Audits are new approaches adopted by the Commission under COA Resolution No. 98-005 dated March 3, 1998. While these types of audits were introduced in 1998, it was only in 2002 that these approaches were operationalized under the COA-U NDP AusAID Project entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Enhancing the Public Accountability Programme of the Philippine Commission on AuditÃ¢â¬ .Government-wide audit is the simultaneous examination of a management function or activity in a number of government agencies which is expected to provide: * basic data for comparing practices and operations between and among government agencies in the same sector or with the whole government; * collated data of practices in various government agencies that could show the magnitude or insignificance of deficiencies in the system; * audit criteria which are supported by best practices; * awareness on the part of auditors and the auditees of how their agency compares with other government agencies in terms of objectives, functions, operations, internal and administrative controls, and output; and * opportunities to the audited agency for benchmarking with other government agencies.On the other hand, the Sectoral Audit refers to an audit of programs or activitie s that are delivered by more than one government agency and is expected to provide: * an overall picture of how various segments of a program are implemented and possibly lead to the identification of areas where improvements can be introduced; * audit criteria or benchmark for future audits of government programs by various government agencies; * basis for auditors to realize that program difficulties may not lie with a single agency but possibly with the way the agencies involved in the program work together; * an arena for airing program difficulties by audited agencies; and * opportunity for making changes in the program, if necessary.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Another day and a new crime committed by pupils in an American High School involving firearms. No longer does this event shock society, but instead it is seen as a problem that needs to be solved. The public can only guess what it is leading teens into carrying out such unthinkable actions at their age. What is it in their youth culture that is causing them to turn into murderers? One thought is that perhaps the rock music of today and its often violent and disturbing lyrics and videos may be partially to blame, but can this argument be justified? Is it the music steering people to violence or do vulnerable minds just turn to dark music as they associate with the often-sinister lyrics and the repulsive images portrayed? Music has many well-known benefits; most are associated with helping to control emotion. It is at the heart of most social gatherings and there is a song or tune for every mood. By learning to play music it has been proved that better academic potential and skills can be achieved. Because of music providing entertainment, there are many social benefits that come from liking a particular genre as friends can be found with a common interest, the music. Rock music is a very strong and passionate form of music that tends to draw mainly those in early to mid teens yet unlike many other genres it seems to be able to hold on to its followers throughout the fans' lifetimes. What is it that draws in so many youngsters? Why do they feel the need to get involved in what is seen to be a dark world of outrageous behaviour? It is a simple answer; they feel the need to associate with the others feeling the same strain as they do as they struggle to gain freedom and identity in a confusing world. The lyrics are real and don't hide from the bad parts of life, the passion is so strong people know that the performers have felt what they're singing about. It is a world about being you and being able to escape from growing pressures. Emotionally adolescence is very tough indeed and many fans feel rock music helps them to cope with the feelings rather than it causing them to become yet more incontrollable. Ã¢â¬Å"It gives me more of a relief of tension than actually making me angryÃ¢â¬ Alisha (19) Ã¢â¬â Dum Dums Message Bored Ã¢â¬Å"If I need to chill or have a little cry the music helpsÃ¢â¬ Kate (18) Ã¢â¬â Dum Dums Message Bored Ã¢â¬Å"It helps because you know other people have had the same experiences as you Ã¢â¬â you are not aloneÃ¢â¬ Ivy Brandybuck Ã¢â¬â Dum Dums Message Bored Yet there is a thought that the music could be twisting the young's minds and turning them to unmoral behaviour especially as rock music has always had its roots in shadowy circumstances. It is thought many of the images portrayed in the early days of psychedelic rock come from hallucinations caused by drugs such as LSD. The lyrics became confused and dream-like. The progression from this was to music associated with Satanism and the rock world portrayed this as a move against religions, particularly Christianity and today we have artist such as Marilyn Manson who are publicly Anti-Christ (Ã¢â¬Å"Hopefully I'll be remembered as the person who brought an end to ChristianityÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Manson August 1996) and members of the church of Satanism. Such changes in the style of music gave artists a more individual rebel image that is often idolised by the young as they fight society to gain freedom and search for their own identity. It is also thought the rise in interest in this brand of music may be down to an overall rise in society of interest around fantasy, black magic and surrealism as the gothic image became popular in the late 70s and since then the obsession with the Ã¢â¬Ëdarker side' and Satan has grown causing production of music that is pushing the teachings of the devil: Ã¢â¬Å"We all praise the devil He is so fine We all praise the devil Till the day we'll die!Ã¢â¬ Sad Iron The appearance rock music has been given begins with the appearance given out by the performers themselves. Covered in dark and sinister make-up and dressed in Halloween type outfits, just by looking at rock stars you can see where the concern is coming from. Notorious for wrecking hotel rooms as well as abusing alcohol and recreational drugs and often having criminal records or accusations behind them. They stand out as individuals, what youngsters in their early teens want to be like. They idolise this life wishing they could lead the lives of the stars they follow, like the majority of their peers. It isn't unnatural for them to want to be like the performers but the appearance, attitudes and actions of the performers can be so extreme they become dangerous for a vulnerable adolescent to copy. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't think it's the music itself the affects the way people act but the attitudes of the people who sing them. They should be careful about what they do and say because there's always some people who will think what they're doing is fine and go ahead and do it themselvesÃ¢â¬ ~dum girl~ Ã¢â¬â Dum Dums Message Bored The most worrying rock genre is the most hardcore type that seems to many to be pushing the use of drugs and violence, particularly against women. It is this aspect of rock that is the most controversial with many opponents who fear it is damaging the minds of the young. Lyrics constantly refer to abuse against women; sexual violence, self-harming and drug abuse and contain a large amount of blasphemous or offensive language. The following is a classic example of violence and sexual abuse being expressed in a song: Ã¢â¬Å"I am a big man (yes I am) and I have a big gun, got me big old dick and I like to have fun, held it against your forehead, I'll make you suck it, maybe I'll put a hole in your head; you know, just for the f**k of itÃ¢â¬ ¦. i'm every inch of a man, and I'll show you somehow; me and my f**king gun; nothing can stop me; shoot shoot shootÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ Nine Inch Nails Ã¢â¬â Big Man with a gun It is not always clear what the lyrics are but now with the age of the music videos the scenes can be acted out so the public has constant access to the true horror the musicians are trying to portray through the lyrics and music itself. It is angry music written about anger and intended to alert minds. The dramatic images of sick actions are there to draw in the audience, to bring them into a disturbed world of mental torture. By glorifying these images and ideas it is thought the performers are encouraging violence in society, particularly in the young as they struggle to be noticed. The most worrying thought is that maybe these images are causing people to accept such actions as part of life. The move away from Christianity so far that it causes anti-religion is also an area for concern. Religion gives society many of its morals and if people are seeing no faith in it then why should they follow its beliefs? Also it is seen as good to be going against the bibles teachings so the more the church condemns the rock world, the more likely the rock world is to fight back harder against it. The problem lies with Christian rock music as some extreme evangelists believe even the beats are from the devil but many Christians believe this is a crazy view: Ã¢â¬Å"these anti-rock people claimed that not only were the lyrics leading teenagers to damnation, but the beat of the music was evil itself as it came from tribes affiliated with SatanÃ¢â¬ ¦This theory struck me as harder to swallow than subconscious messages we allegedly received from Ã¢â¬Ësecular' musicÃ¢â¬ Taryn Ã¢â¬â Crafy Gal Stump What many people seem to not understand is that the images and lyrics are there to represent the state of society and where the performer sees it is heading, kind of like a warning to the world. The trouble with this is do we know if society is naturally going in that direction or if it's the music steering us that way. Rock music has always set out to cause controversy and portray the darker occult society. It could not survive if people did not feel associated with the statements it makes. Maybe youth is drawn into it simply out of rebellion against the society they grow up in or maybe they see rock as the only form of art that reflects how the world is changing or the real passion behind emotions they often feel. The ideas are new and fresh and give teens a sense of individuality. People who are angry at life and are naturally aggressive are more likely to turn to gaining an image that portrays that so fall straight into the rock world. The anger against religion is simply a fight back because many fans feel let down by the disappointment of not receiving a happy life but believing in a god. In the world there are many fans of all levels of rock and the proportion of these who turn to violence is not exceptionally high. Yes maybe the amount of violent young offenders who listen to hardcore rock may be high but perhaps this is because they have always been unnaturally fascinated by the world of the occult sinisterism and the music they listen to simply portrays this. The majority of fans know that what seems to be very evil anti-society behaviour is in fact just a go at all the critics and the critics themselves by apposing the rock world is simply making it more popular. There has always been a problem with rock music and its sinister side. It seems the violence portrayed was made worse by the introduction of videos where performers could add disturbing visualisations to their already violent lyrics. I do not however feel that these images alone can turn a mind to violent crime. In society we are all made fully aware of what is morally seen to be right and wrong and we cannot hide from that. Most followers of the hardcore rock genres are just like everyone else only they dress differently. All in all it depends on how a listener portrays what the performer is saying. Most realise they are not trying to convert everyone into criminals. In conclusion I feel that it is not the music and in particular rock music that is causing violence among the teens in America but I feel that the extreme hardcore rock may not be helping to solve the problem and its violent lyrics and videos may be putting ideas into the heads of the already disturbed. It is a free passion form of music and to most people it helps them cope with difficult emotions and helps them to understand pain by comforting them with reassurance they are not alone. As for the religious aspect, why should people be scorned at for not believing in a certain way? The world if free and there is no proof rock music is causing great harm so it, like the rest of society, should be free to be expressed.